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4.1 BACKGROUND

In the changing world of work there is almost unlimited work available for people with the right competencies. How does it happen that people are perpetually complaining that there is not enough work to do? Perhaps the problem lies with the skills and competencies a person has to offer to the workplace. This means that you need to gain the right competencies along with work access and work experience in order to ensure a job for yourself (and your future clients). You can do this by exposing yourself to different work situations and by doing work with people who are already have a measure of success in their work situation.

This unit illustrates the importance and reasons for you and your clients to work with someone. Preferably this should be someone close to you or someone who is one level superior to you as you will have to take up some of their time in the workplace and time is money!

How do you convince them that you are serious about your mission? Show them that you and your career seekers are doing peer group learning and need to learn with them (Module 1). The benefits that they will get out of the experience are personal growth from explaining and talking about their jobs and they can earn money from recruitment and placement fees. You need to empower them to share their work experience with you. Remind them that we are always the owners of our own choices and actions. Their decision to allow you to enter their world of work (as an observer) can make or break you (and your future clients). Our beliefs and attitudes keep us doing what we are currently doing. You can tactfully point out to them that you would not have approached them if you did not know/believe that they are successful role models whom you would like to follow and you know they are certain of their success and will not be threatened by your presence in their work situation.  Refer back to the attitude module (PCAR 01W Unit 5) in order to use the information which you studied to strengthen your argument and to convince them of your seriousness.

Don’t we often wait for something to happen and then we are disappointed when nothing happens or no one intervenes to change our circumstances? Now you are in the process of getting the tools which make it possible for you to choose to take action and make a difference to your own life and to the lives of others!

You can to refer to stratification and communities in PCAR3X Unit 3 to remind yourself of what separates the rich and the poor.  It is beliefs and habits which include lack of exposure to different work situations. If you decide to create work related experiences for yourself and others, you have demonstrate an attitude of, “I can” vs. one of “They must” in which you sit back and wait for opportunities to come to you.

The difference between South Africa and the United States of America is that South Africans often see work as punishment and something to be avoided. This statement is based on the personal experience of many of our family and friends who have visited or immigrated to the United States. This is prevalent among many young people across all the races. A young South African who only gets his/her first work experience at the age of 18 or higher is literally 3-5 years behind their average American counterpart who will start working in low level minimum wage jobs as early as 15 years. They build up references and preferences from an early age which enable them to make more informed and reliable choices by the time they reach the age of 18. Follow the link below and briefly familiarise yourself with the concept of work ethics and the difference it can make to an individual and a country.  Unfortunately, it is difficult for young people to become productive because of unique factors in our country but it is up to you as career guide practitioner to be part of the solution.

4.2 FACTS REGARDING ACCESS TO THE PRESENT AND FUTURE WORLD OF WORK

Competencies determine where and if you can enter the world of work.  However, you also need to become aware of the facts regarding the present and future world of work AND increase your knowledge and skills regarding the present and future world of work to change people’s opportunities.

All the motivation and reasons for knowledge acquisition are found in the reports in Activity 1 below. These reports are published every year and they keep you up to date with the size and nature of our gaps. Both reports state that access to knowledge and the ability to grasp or interpret that knowledge is the key separator or stratifier between rich and poor.

PCAR03X, Unit 4, Activity 1

  1. Download the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Report and view the gaps between rich and poor to become aware of the level and reasons why the rich and poor stay apart.  Consider how this knowledge can assist you in motivating people to gain the competencies and join the successful communities and societies matched to their personal choices of industry and work. You will use the same techniques to convince career seekers to build bridges and make their own plans for work access and growth.
  2. Discuss what you have learnt with your study colleagues.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or Google search to explore and discover matching areas. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Answer the following questions:
  • How can you use the above information to convince people we are separated by what we know and by our exposure? Write down two specific uses for each.
  • Think about a structured way to use the information to enthuse people into taking action. Write down two actions they can take right now!

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

You should now know that all resources are readily available and accessible by people with workplace exposure and requisite competencies. If you approach a company or government with no experience or no qualifications asking for help, they will most certainly not pay much attention to you let alone give you access to resources. If you, however, approach them with a plan with experience or with credible qualifications, they will see you as part of the solution to a problem and not the problem itself. You thus come with the support of the leaders in your community and/or a company or institution which makes you a safer investment rather than a risky expense. As career guidance practitioner you should be able to see where you fit in and how you should present yourself as part of the solution and not the problem.

This is the way in which you should gain access and exposure to work opportunities:

  • Awareness through engagement and exposure [please refer to unit in which student was taught to do this],
  • Acquire knowledge about the workplace
  • ICT competencies and access by using the web (World Wide Web or WWW)
  • Communication competencies and communication with leaders
  • Relationships with working people and leaders
  • Practice in peer groups at home and with friends

The working people in your close proximity form part of the broader successful community. They have access to their workplace and from there can generate further access for you to investigate.

The gaps in the CV/resumes of those not finding jobs clearly show that they have not shown initiative to gain work experience. Remember that if you start as a poorly paid messenger, this does not mean you will stay at that level for the rest of your life.  Typical gaps in a CV are regarding the following competencies:

  • Access to knowledge
  • Past experience or exposure enabling one to grasp and apply the knowledge.
  • English language comprehension and a reading speed of at least 250 words a minute and with an 85% comprehension score
  • Internet access to access the knowledge
  • A desire to serve others to build relationships in chosen communities of industry, expertise and support
  • Knowledge of the gaps and a plan to bridge these gaps.

When you yourself as PCAR student have mastered these competencies, you are guaranteed access to a vast range of job opportunities. In turn, you can now guide career seekers to help them highlight their gaps and find the solutions by filling the gaps. Remember always show the solution first.

PCAR03X, Unit 4, Activity 2

  1. How can you facilitate access to the world of work for career seekers?
  2. Opportunities are almost limitless for the right competencies.  However, how do you use self-drive and self-education to get there?  In addition, what opportunities exist with the necessary resources and structures?
  3. Discuss what you learnt with your study colleagues.
  4. Use Dictionary, Wikipedia or Google and
  5. Answer the following questions:
  • How can a better work ethic benefit both young and old? Name two factors for each (Refer back to Module 1 Unit 5 to recap values).
  • Taking the above information into account, make a list of five prominent gaps that you yourself have in your own personal CV. With the new knowledge, give five solutions to filling those gaps. These can include further education, more work experience or extending your network.

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

Do you agree that:

  • People are isolated from work opportunities through the lack of communication skills, ownership for themselves and clear plans of action to bridge the divide?
  • Jobs, resources, opportunities and challenges are freely available in South Africa?
  • Your own awareness and courage to use the resources to fill the gaps in your CV is all that was missing? If you feel that you still are not sure how to fill the gaps in your CV, you need to work through this module again, and specifically mention your problem in your MiActivityBook.

4.3 SOLUTIONS TO THE CURRENT SITUATION

We often make the mistake of concerning ourselves with the problem to such an extent that even the solution eventually becomes part of the problem. The above information should get you into a solution based frame of mind, where the focus does not lie in defining the problem but rather in finding a logical solution. Such a solution should provide a means to an end. The solution is simple in its essence but complex in its implementation.

It is up to you as career guidance practitioner to

  • Use the tools you have acquired in previous exercises to increase an individual’s awareness of the opportunities around him/her.
  • Guide him/her regarding what needs to be done and how to take advantage of the solutions.
  • Instil an attitude of personal ownership, planning and initiating.
  • Help the career seeker to approach his/her leaders and those with resources with a plan that warrants attention and success.
  • Introduce people to the internet and its benefits.
  • Mobilise your community.
  • Help people realise the value embedded in their extending communities.

4.4 HOW TO THRIVE IN THE NEW WORLD OF WORK

The economy grows to accommodate all people. This is due to the new world of work’s ability to change rapidly. Type “economy grows with competencies” into Google search and see what happens!

“The world of work is changing”. Type this phrase into Google; choose some web sites that interest you.  Can you see how much the workplace has changed, and the fun you can have once you understand this? However, if you do not embrace change and prepare for continuous change, it is not exciting and exhilarating but threatening. Be aware of change, stay with it, and drive it. When you initiate change, you will always be at its forefront. Otherwise, you might become the victim of change and by doing so you set yourself up to be left behind. This is the nature of the new world of work. The only way you can stay ahead is by keeping yourself up to date with the latest knowledge and growth trends within your chosen profession or industry.

PCAR03X, Unit 4, Activity 3

  1. View the changing world of work web site and view the preparation required for the new world of work. There are limitless jobs and business opportunities for people with the right competencies.  Consider how it can assist you in motivating people to gain the competencies and to join successful communities and societies. Which are matched to their personal choices of industry and work?  You will use the same techniques to help career seekers to build bridges and make their own plans for work access and growth.
  2. Discuss what you learnt with your study colleagues.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or Google search to explore and discover matching areas. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Answer the following questions:
  • How can you use the above information to convince people that everyone can know what they want and plan for the new world of work? Write down two specific uses for each.
  • Think about a structured way to use the information to enthuse people to take action. Write down two actions they can take right now! An example is creating motivation through relevant information and exposure.

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

Module 4 guides you to help your clients implement what they learned from you about the aspects of the self, skills and knowledge. You and your clients will:

  • Grow your awareness of the world of work
  • Grow your knowledge to access the world of work
  • Use ICT for communication and access to the WWW (to keep moving life long)
  • Communicate using understandable English and suitable numeracy
  • Build relationships with people in work and with right resources
  • Make a contribution to others close to you
  • Practise these skills at home, with friends and use them in the work place.

Is this a difficult task? Not if you serious about becoming a worthwhile career guidance practitioner. The easy things you can do immediately to prepare, enter, and thrive in the new world of work are described and explained from Module 1 through to where we are now. We were careful to ensure that you and your career seeker clients can master each step. Here are the steps you need to take:

1.         The first step is for you to believe what you have read and learnt in PCAR.

2.         The next step is to help other people come to similar conclusions and realisations.

4.5 CONCLUSION

You now know there are many jobs available in South Africa. People who come to you as clients seeking jobs should also know this. You know that specific competencies coupled with an action plan ensure access to jobs. Your clients need to know this too. In order to do this, you must help your clients become aware of their work preferences and to be knowledgeable about their industry of choice, specifically their work of choice within that industry.  Then you should assist them to plan a written work access plan which they are prepared to follow and implement.

At this stage of the Programme for Career Guidance Practitioners, you know enough about the world of work to give your clients a vision of themselves in a specific job in the world of work. The competencies which you have acquired for yourself as career guidance practitioner will set you on the path to join successful people. Your success helps you to invest in the future of others and achieve further personal success! Just like Bill Gates did.

Key questions

  • What is a community?
  • How can you leverage opportunities, expertise and resources in existing communities?
  • What keeps people apart or stratified?
  • What removes the barriers?

In this module we emphasise once more the value of serving people who are active in business, civic and civil communities.  What do I mean when I ask about serving people? You need to see the wider definition of a community by looking at the detail of employers and their employees. Once you have gained knowledge about the jobs in your community you will be in a position to identify needs (job opportunities) in the employment market. You can then pass this information on to career seekers who in turn can share their knowledge with their families and friends.

While you are engineering the exposure of employers to community members, you remain the facilitator and guide who helps the career seeker develop and implement productivity and growth plans.

The challenge is to start immediately by linking with the various work communities in the area where you live.

3.1 CIVIL, CIVIC, COMMON INTEREST AND THE WORKING COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT

What constitutes the wider community?  Communities consist of the people within them and the links those people have with other communities. Communities are based on geographic location as well as being formed through common interests. In the tangible or physical sense we are always part of a family, the community where we live, an ethnic group, our nation and the globe. We also choose to be part of communities drawn together because of common interests, beliefs, values and occupations. The successful utilisation of these communities and the relationships within depend on your learning to manage these multiple communities simultaneously. Each one who is not yet productive or who wants to be more productive is your direct concern and his/her joblessness impacts heavily on the community in which he/she lives. These communities need you to be an active career guidance practitioner who leads the way to employment for all who want to learn about themselves and work.

PCAR03X, Unit 3, Activity 1

  1. Study the community and social principles.  Consider how it can assist you to choose and join communities and societies to match your industry and work choice. Once you have done this for yourself, you will be able to use the same techniques to help career seekers find their work match.
  2. Discuss what you learnt with your study colleagues.
  3. Use Dictionary, Wikipedia or Google and conduct an extensive search to learn more about communities and societies and how they function and benefit each other. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. Are you inspired by this information to think about the way in which you formulate questions that you ask clients? It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Answer the following questions:
  • How do you plan to access and use communities and societies as resources for your career guidance process? Write down two specific plans for each.
  • Think about a structured way in which you can grow with your own community and society. Write down two examples.
  • Use examples of communities and societies that you actually plan to access.

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

You now know that both a community and society can be formed in and by any local group linked to other groups. Your community and society have the potential to be as wide as you choose them to be. How can this be? All you need to do is to create a larger network in order to link your community with others.

The question to ask is:  How can you create such a large network? You need to link people in your geographical community to other communities and societies. While you are doing this, you will gain competencies and help them be more productive.

What can you do so that you and your community members will all learn more, know more, do more and earn more? You need to have the backing of your community and your community leaders for the career guidance service which you intend to offer. In this manner, you ensure that they will be there for you when you move. You will need to pass on this skill to career seekers as they too will need their own backup systems when they apply for positions.

How can you utilise your community’s activities in order to enhance the community members’ knowledge about career choices? How can you encourage them to climb their own knowledge and career ladders?  Explain to them that they will be productive and happy members of their own community because they form part of many communities and societies, such as:

  • Families and where they come from
  • The area where they currently live
  • Common interest communities as in sport
  • Common interest communities as in hobbies such as photography, etc.
  • Work communities
  • Travel communities
  • Internet communities
  • Church communities
  • Cultural communities
  • AND if they follow the process of building networks in their community, they will be a productive member of the work community.

3.2 WHAT SEPARATES PEOPLE FROM EACH OTHER?

People are generally separated from each other in some or other way. A prominent separation with a great effect on people’s lives is stratification. In sociological terms it means the hierarchical division according to caste, rank or class. In this context we are mainly focussed on stratification through class, and its cause which is knowledge based division.

There are, however, ways to overcome stratification and the effects thereof. Stratification can be bridged by facilitating access to people with resources through communities. Your task is to understand the nature of the problem and to accept that the more fortunate cannot reach out to the less fortunate (and visa versa) due to misinformation and insufficient skills.

Is this a fact which we have to accept? Or is it merely a problem to which a solution can be found? Of course, the problem can be solved, and you are part of the solution.

PCAR03X, Unit 3, Activity 2

  1. Consider how stratification and social stratification it can assist you to bridge the barriers that keep you or the career seeker from accessing work competencies and thus further opportunities.
  2. Discuss what you have learnt with your study colleagues.
  3. Use Dictionary, Wikipedia or Google and conduct an extensive search to learn more about stratification and its effects.  Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Answer the following questions:
  • How can you access and use communities and societies to eliminate stratifiers? Write down two specific uses for each.
  • Think about a structured way to grow with communities and societies to eliminate stratification. Write down two of your plans.
  • Suggest how people with little awareness can gain exposure to and start bridging the gaps in knowledge and experience to eliminate the personal factors cause individual stratification.

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

The most important ways to gain access to resources would be to access people in organisations, associations, civil and civic networks or communities.  The career guidance practitioner guides these groups to meet and facilitate flow of resources and access to competencies, resources and thus work.

3.3 IMPLEMENTATION

There are many bridges which you can cross to access communities and societies. These bridges will support the career seeker. When people get to know each other, it is usually mutually beneficial and as a result the stratifiers disappear.

In Module 5 you will use the knowledge of communities, societies and stratification to connect career seekers to industries and to training/the work of their choice. The PCAR career guidance course empowers you to prepare career seekers to access people in communities and societies with resources and opportunities.

Local resources must be found and utilised. The Department of Labour renders a service regarding different careers.  According to Aitken (sj: 138), the Department of Labour offers vocational guidance and psychometric testing free of charge to students over the age of 16 who are in Grade 12. This service is also offered to workers who are unhappy in their present employment. The Department of Labour also publishes a bilingual book (My Career), which describes approximately 500 careers in a fair amount of detail.

Find a more up to date occupational handbookSouth African references to the occupational handbook

3.4 CONCLUSION

Your personal insight and understanding of the process of entering the job market, as well as your participation in creating networks in your communities and societies will create access to knowledge and resources for career seekers.

Your experience regarding accessing leaders in local business, civic and civil communities and societies will directly benefit job seekers.

Your geographical community is just one such example. Serve your leaders and you help them grow while you grow with them. They will and can help you access resources and institutions and it will thus generate mutual benefit.

Key questions

  • What do parents, family and friends mean to the career seeker?
  • How do you apply the knowledge that you have gained about yourself?
  • How would you remove limitations to communicating and finding career opportunities?

2.1 INTRODUCTION

This module has two focal points.  It looks at the use of knowledge that you have gained about yourself (after working through Modules 1 & 2); and it looks at how to involve and inform parents and family. Up to this point you have gained some insight into personality, aptitude, abilities, interests, values and careers in general.  It is now important to apply the knowledge about these concepts to inform parents, family, and friends, to say thank you (do you remember how this was explained in PCAR03X: Unit 1?) and to attract resources to implement your work access campaign. Inform them regarding your personality, your abilities and values and what possible careers will suit you best. Remember that this is the same process your career seeker clients will follow. It is important for you to go through the same process to be able to help and guide your future clients effectively.

2.2 WHAT DO PARENTS, FAMILY AND FRIENDS MEAN TO CAREER SEEKERS?

PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 1

  1. Open http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venn_diagram and http://www.logictutorial.com/ and study the Venn diagram again.  Also, refer back to Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/103/2007.
  2. You have already explored your interests, values, aptitude, and abilities.  Now you need to enter this into the Venn diagram to see how it overlaps and determines your passions.  Use the Venn diagram from Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/103/2007 and discover what it is that you have not yet shared with your parents, family and friends. Use the structured results from your exercises in Module 1 and preparation for communication in Module 2 and share what you have discovered.
  3. You will use the words which you discovered by completing Module 1 (use the adjectives from the Johari window from PCAR01V/103/2007 as a guideline) to enter in to the Venn diagram.  Use the Venn diagram below as a structure and let others complete it with you.  Discuss the results with parents, family and friends.
  4. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  5. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments

Feedback:

You will find that after completing the Venn diagram on your aptitude, personality, interest and values, you will be able to communicate your own personal qualities to your parents, family and friends more easily.

PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 2

  1. What do you think is the value of knowing yourself with regard to your personality, aptitude, interest and values, for a career choice?   Briefly write down five points about the importance of knowing yourself.
  2. Discuss your ideas about knowledge of yourself as a basis for a responsible career choice with your study colleagues, family or friends.
  3. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  4. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

Do you remember that choosing a career implies that you are going to be active in a certain career field for at least eight hours per day?  Will you be able to do the work that is expected of you and will you find it interesting enough to spend all that time at it? Do you have the necessary ability to use your talents or do you need training to become competent?

You must remember that the way that you see yourself should determine your career choice.  However, in the next section, attention will be given to the way that your parents, friends or family see you regarding your personality, aptitude, interest and values. Their opinion regarding your personal qualities will give you greater insight into yourself.

2.3 INVOLVEMENT OF PARENTS, FAMILY AND FRIENDS

You will gain access to social networks and support by informing the important people in your life about your work preferences and opportunities. The career seeker will, however, require firm support during these change processes.[1] You as career guidance practitioner should transfer your knowledge and skills of the processes involved in informing and support to your career seeker.

Keep in mind that parents, family and friends:

  • give verbal input regarding the different careers which you might be considering, and
  • unconsciously model their specific careers to you and your community.  Therefore, be careful not to explore too many other career opportunities and miss the obvious career choices around you!

PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 3

  1. Study the Johari window again.  Also, refer back to tutorial letter PCAR01V/103/2007.
  2. Use the Johari window from PCAR01V/103/2007 and discover what it is that you have not yet shared with your parents, family or friends. Use the structured results from your exercises in Module 1 in preparation for communication in Module 2 and share what you have discovered.  As author, I would like to thank Plug, Meyer, Louw and Gouws (1991:168) for their specific applications of the Johari window.
  3. Make a page with the four quadrants. Use the Johari window, (Figure 3.2 below) as an example) and let others complete it with you.
  4. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  5. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.
  6. This is an example of a career related use of the Johari window as described by Gouws and Kruger (1994:164). Please complete it as part of PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 3.

Figure 3.2 The Johari window applied to a career seeker

ARENA

Personality ……………………………………………..

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Aptitude ………………………………………………….

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Interest …………………………………………………..

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Values ……………………………………………………

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BLIND SPOT

Personality ……………………………………………..

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Aptitude ………………………………………………….

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Interest …………………………………………………..

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Values ……………………………………………………

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FAÇADE

Personality ……………………………………………..

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Aptitude ………………………………………………….

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Interest …………………………………………………..

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Values ……………………………………………………

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UNKNOWN

Feedback:

Did you learn anything new about yourself by completing the Johari window?  You can use these processes with family, friends, family and local leaders in the workplace. As a result the people around you will get to know you and during your discussion with them, you will get to know them to a certain extent. Getting exposure to each other and your willingness to share your intrapersonal qualities with them will contribute to reducing possible prejudice and bias and the meeting might even provide a working environment that might be available to you in the future. Meeting each other, thanking them for the opportunity for discussion and sharing information about yourself make for a safe growing experience for all.

2.4 THE NATURE OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT

Unlike urban youths, young people in rural and remote areas generally have to leave home to attend secondary school. They most certainly have to go to urban centres to do any type of training, which can put them on a career path.  Children from the rural areas do not have the same background knowledge on career and study possibilities as their urban friends due to limited exposure to the few careers that their community members have. Obviously a smaller variety of job opportunities is available to them in their rural areas.   Most career-related information and resources are located in distant centres which are inaccessible to most rural families.  Professionals, who have the required career-related knowledge, are concentrated in larger urban settings (Jeffery, Lehr, Hache & Campbell 1992:240-241).

Jeffery et al. (1992:241) found from their research in rural parts that the major problems faced by rural parents were lack of career-related information and lack of knowledge on how to obtain available information.  They came to the conclusion that parents were not adequately equipped to assist their children in making job choices, e.g. in terms of information about the range of jobs available and in understanding what certain jobs entail.

Jeffery et al.  (1992:246-248) did research in Canada and listed a number of hypotheses (expectations) to be verified in interviews with parents in rural areas.  The list was split into two groups: family, community and cultural reviews and job, career and labour-related concerns.

It would be interesting to note the outcomes of similar research under South African circumstances!

Read carefully through the list of hypotheses/expectations.  What would you predict the outcome of research in South Africa to be? For interest’s sake indicate your view in the true or false column provided.
Family, community and cultural concerns TRUE FALSE
1           Problems result from very close bonding of the young person to parents, peers, home and community.

2          Widely held beliefs that home communities are the best or only place to be (ethnocentrism).

3          Fears held by young persons and perhaps parents that young people are unable to compete successfully elsewhere.

4          Situations where the young person is socialised into non-creative solutions/non-provocative stances when it comes to the pursuit of careers.

5          Many members of the community (the potential role models for both the parents and the youth) demonstrate that they have adapted successfully to what is, in many respects, a difficult local situation.  In other words, there are many role models who are “surviving” as unemployed people.

6          Many gender-related issues and problems.

7          Problems resulting from early pregnancies.

8          Widely held views that it is easier and cheaper to stay at or near home.

9          Inter-generational patterns of welfare or unemployment insurance dependency.

10         Common parental strategies, which encourage the young person to return home when there is stress.

11         A limited number of role models in communities capable of demonstrating good career decision-making skills.

12         Tendencies for young people (who leave the home community for career purposes) to go primarily to those settings where there already is a support network rather than to unfamiliar communities.

13         Greater problems for youths associated with leaving the old situation, than with their ability to cope with a new situation.

14         People have problems because of substance abuse.

Jobs, career and labour market information concerns TRUE FALSE
1           An absence of jobs available in the area.

2          An absence of information on places (local or distant) where one might get work.

3          A limited amount of knowledge about the wide range of career options that exist.

4          Limited parental and youth knowledge about how to identify persons or services that can supply them with or lead them to information.

5          A lack of parental and youth awareness that there are often support services in a new community from which they might seek help (i.e. churches and social clubs).

6          An extensive misinformation about what it is like in other centres.

7          A relative absence of “mentors” or persons who encourage or challenge youth to search more widely.

8         A relative absence of parents with strategies for finding work.

2.5 REMOVING LIMITATIONS TO COMMUNICATION

An analysis of the data collected in Canada by Jeffery et al (1992:249) supported many of the hypotheses in the above table. This meant that their expectations were well founded.

However, it was found that parents expected and supported youth to leave the community.  Furthermore, no support was found for the hypothesised notion that parents encourage their children to return home if confronted with stressful situations when away.   Parents also knew that career identification and problems existed and tried hard to identify solutions.

Parents also expressed the view that because of their lack of education, they did not see themselves as good role models for their children.  They also felt that they lacked adequate experience and knowledge to offer sound educational advice.

If the same problems regarding career guidance by rural parents occurred in South Africa, what assistance could be given to them to help them to prepare themselves to guide their children in a career choice? Remember, you intend to guide people in your community regarding their choice of careers!

Feedback:

I would like to make a few suggestions for you to add to the ideas which you might have. Is it possible to bring rural career seekers closer to the same processes that successful workplace families already have? This could be done by exposing them to successful and advantaged people.  How is this done? You could arrange to bridge the difference between them and successful workers by accessing successful work people through civil and civic organizations. You could help the rural career seekers to communicate their knowledge and interests to their parents, family and community members. Not only does this give them the opportunity to practise speaking about themselves, but it will prevent them from isolating themselves from the community. Instead they will raise the knowledge and awareness of the jobs to which they have been exposed within the community as a whole.

You also need to assist parents to assist young people during the transition from home to work.  Parents and leaders should be briefed during the processes to obtain and participate in the information exchange on careers and jobs.  Under your guidance, community leaders could assist parents to form groups for discussion about careers and educational activities. The following information is important and should be included in the communication:

  • finding career information
  • coping with the problems of registration, loans, insurance, etc.
  • helping children to leave home
  • coping with loneliness and relocation problems
  • helping young people anticipate and deal with their new freedom
  • helping young people maintain a pride in their roots
  • helping young people cope with fears of being “different”
  • communicating with and staying in contact when a young person is away

Remember that extensive web resources exist and the leaders’ involvement makes the choices safer.

2.6 SUMMARY

Successful families have structures in place which remove barriers to communication with their children. A circle of families can offer many possible opportunities to the children of their friends. Access and knowledge are shared freely for the sole purpose of adding value to young people and offering them opportunities in life.  In rural areas this is not possible. The only option is thus to increase knowledge about career opportunities by creating a partnership between the youth and the older community. Everyone learns and everyone grows and this will continue to benefit the community for generations to come.

It is therefore important for you as career guide to practise the process of informing the people around you about your own personal qualities (your own Johari window) and about the career opportunities which you can offer them.  You need to help the career seeker use the same strategies as successfully as you have done to avoid their isolation and to promote knowledge distribution among the people in the community.


[1] The change process refers to the transition from a current state to a desired state.  Explore this website about managing the change process.

1.1 OVERVIEW

This overview provides an overall view of what you will learn in this module.  You will find it useful to refer back to this page after completing each unit to see how the content fits into the bigger picture.

The suggested timetable for each unit is one week.  That means that you will be able to finish the unit within two months.  If you keep to this schedule, you will have two weeks at the end of this module to complete your assignment.

UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION

UNIT 2: UTILISATION OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE SELF AND PARENT INVOLVEMENT

UNIT 3:  COMMUNITY AND EMPLOYER INVOLVEMENT

UNIT 4: THE WORLD OF WORK AND THE WORK EXPERIENCE GAINED WHEN INVESTING IN YOURSELF

UNIT 5: ENTREPRENEURIAL PRACTICES AND BEHAVIOURS

UNIT 6: ASSIGNMENT 01 (PCAR03X)

1.2 INTRODUCTION

In this module you and, in future, your career seekers will be acquainted with the social network of parents, family, friends, the community and the employer.  Although knowledge of your personal qualities is very important in choosing of work linked to career building, you should also consider social networks when choosing work to build careers.  You helped the career seekers determine their own personal qualities by using Module 1 and prepared them for external communication in Module 2.  These three partners (the parent, community and employer) play an important role in supporting your final choice of work to build your career.

Since work is plentiful for competent people, you need to inform, explain and show parents, community and possible workplaces evidence of your competence. You need to know the gaps between the requirements and your competences, plan to bridge them and thus access the work of your choice.  In this regard, we agree with Nelson (1980:1) who said, “Both the individual and society must benefit when people are employed doing what they are best able to do and most enjoy …”

The people in your community and at home must understand your work preferences and traits. Support from home and the community is vital for success and access to work. The support becomes important when you or the career seeker requires access to resources, support or bridging of competencies. These processes will help you and the career seeker to communicate what you have explored and discovered in Module 1 and prepared in Module 2. Use the tutorial processes from PCAR01V/102/2007 to assist you to implement the processes and communicate them to others. You learn vital competencies via this process.  As career guide, you will pass on the communication competencies to the career seeker. Informing others will enable them to offer you support, input and often attract the resources you require for success.

Many young people often find their first job opportunities and gain work experience by simply informing and saying thank you to people in the community.

Informing parents, the community and the workplace of job opportunities available for competent people utilises the communication processes you are familiar with from Tutorials PCAR01V/102/2007 and PCAR01V/103/2007. Simply start finding reasons to say thank you to people in your family, your leaders in your community and nearby communities and people within the workplace. What are you thanking them for? It might be for the example which they have set; or it might be that they currently employ people who are helping you or who have been placed there with your help; or you might value the way in which they serve the community – any genuine aspect or action which you appreciate is a good reason to thank them for being in your life.  You will be amazed at the power of attraction a genuine “Thank you!” can generate as it often takes people by surprise. How often has anybody really seen what you have done and pointed out the value which you have added to your community? This is what your “Thank you!” tells them – they realise that they are appreciated and valued. This realisation in turn creates a context from which you can access new opportunities and may even open up further doors to such resources.

All these processes and social interaction are inherent to people. You too can be observant and find something that you appreciate in your context. You have felt the pleasure of being appreciated – even if it is with a simple heartfelt “Thank you!” In this module, you receive some guidance and support in revealing your internal personal qualities (intrapersonal qualities).  Doing this will benefit both you and the people around you.

Key questions

  • Can you use choose and use questions and questionnaires to help people explore and discover their industries, work and building careers?
  • Can you use interviews to challenge and guide people to choose careers and take action?
  • Can you guide your clients to engage working people in the industries of choice, contribute to them and learn from them?
  • Can you apply the information from PCAR01V in PCAR02W?

5.1 INTRODUCTION

You are now prepared to gain and share information while communicating with others about career choices. You are also ready to let career seekers experience the same processes for themselves and to develop their abilities through interviews, questionnaires and by building relationships based upon preferences and traits discovered through exploration and discovery.  You can use open and closed questions and you have chosen questionnaires from the Internet to make your explorations and discoveries available for public use.  You will now repeat the process with career seekers and prepare them for public communication in a similar fashion.

You will re-apply the career guidance process for your clients the same way you used the processes to prepare yourself for your communication with your family, community and in your work of choice.  As a career guidance practitioner you will also communicate and transmit the communication competencies and preparation for a career to the career seeker. The aim of this unit is to assess to what extent you have prepared yourself for PCAR03X.  This will be made clear through your own preparation for your communication by practising with the same career seeker group from Assignment 1 in PCAR01V.

Please refer to PCAR02W/101/2008 for further guidance to complete and submit Assignment 01 of Module 2. PCAR02W/101/2008 confirms that Assignment 01 for PCAR02W consists of five activities which have to be completed in real life. Did you realise that the Assignment number stays the same, but the module code changed? You are given the opportunity to get the career seekers of the group you worked with in the Assignment of PCAR01V Unit 7&8, to validate that they have benefited from the work, which you have done with them.

Assignment 01, PCAR02W, Unit 5, Activity 1

Carefully plan a discussion that you intend on holding with the chosen group of people.  In this discussion you will illustrate how the career seekers themselves will prepare to communicate their traits, preferences and industry of choice to their family, community and work of choice.  In other words, you will guide them to build their network.

Try working with the people whom you engaged in the previous assignment.  You already have a relationship with them.  Keep in mind that this assignment builds on your previous work and conversations with the career seeker group.  They might want to finish this career/job seeking process!  However, you can also continue to use your two partners if you struggled to gather a career seeker group.  Help them to update their MiCareer Book and BLOG. Combine the Blog with the MiCareer Book as it serves as an online reference to be used by the owner.

You have already learned about the career seekers’ (your clients or group members) various aptitudes, skills, strengths and communication ability.  You have helped them become aware of these attributes and any possible gaps which they should give attention to or take into consideration when they go job hunting.  By now, the career seeker should have a list of two to five possible job opportunities in accordance with their interests and attributes. Are they trying to bridge the gaps in requirements for access to the jobs?  Are they starting to become consciously aware of the opportunities that are available to them once they gain access and educate themselves?

  • Capture this experience (their growth and awareness) and the learning curve in your own words in your MiCareer Book.

5.2 APPLYING QUESTIONS AND QUESTIONNAIRES

Assignment 01, PCAR02W, Unit 5, Activity 2

Review the career seekers’ information from the PCAR01V assignment and choose from the free web free questionnaires and questions for each one of the topics (personality, interest, aptitude, values and interests).Verify your examples of questionnaires with your two partners before you use them with your group.

  • Prepare for a session where you explain the use of questions and questionnaires that assist the career seeker to explore and discover work related traits and preferences.
  • Let the career seekers review their own information.  They must learn to repeat this process throughout their lives.  So, let them practice to review the questions themselves, populate the Johari and communicate it to their family and friends.  Make sure they understand that these questions are answered contextually or within a specific situation. In other words, their situation or emotion and understanding of the words at the specific moment define their answers.  You must try to get the career seekers in the routine of exploring and discovering by themselves.
  • The career seeker now matches these discoveries with his/her studies, industry and work.  Demonstrate this process practically for each career seeker in the group (see next section).
  • Remember to capture your experiences and learning curve in your MiCareer Book.

5.3 PRACTISE INTERVIEWING AND COMMUNICATING

You already practised questioning and interviewing during the activities in your own groups.  After fulfilling each one of the following three roles, namely the role of facilitator, observer and candidate (repeating the session three times) you should feel more comfortable about presenting your talks to career seeker groups.

Assignment 01, PCAR02W, Unit 5, Activity 3

If possible, work in groups of two to three, with the career seekers.  Let them participate in the roles of the observer and the candidate.

  • Explain and exchange the roles after you have finished the interview with the first candidate.  Each time the career seekers observe the process from a different perspective. Observing this process several times creates greater awareness of the processes for the career seekers!
  • Use critical questionnaires and critical questioning (open and close-ended questions) to challenge how and whether the traits of the career seekers match with their chosen area of study, industry and work choice.  The process lets them expand their choices and grow their communication skills at the same time. Apply the processes and let them use the questionnaires and questioning to each of their areas of personality, interest, talent and aptitude.  Make sure you use the websites from PCAR02W, Unit 3 and Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/103/2008 when preparing for the interviews).
  • Remember to capture your experiences and learning curve in your MiCareer Book.

5.4 SOCIOMETRICS AND SOCIAL NETWORKING

Assignment 01, PCAR02W, Unit 5, Activity 4

  • Apply the process outlined in Section 5.3.
  • Show examples of old relationships and suggest possible new ones that can be built to fit work and industry access, matched to their individual traits and interests. Remember how selected relationships can benefit any individual in any field.
  • Remember to capture your experiences and learning curve in your MiCareer Book.

5.5 READY TO CONNECT?

You have explored and discovered your own personal information and you have applied the process to access personal information in small groups.  It is now time for the summary of your MiCareer Book for public use.  Remember that you need to experience all the processes in order to guide career seekers to experience the same. Therefore, you need to prepare yourself for communication with members of the world of work and you need to prepare your career seekers to do the same.

Assignment 01, PCAR02W, Unit 5, Activity 5

Open http://www.ioljobs.co.za/.  This website will guide you in compiling a CV.  Then, if you want to go more advanced, open http://www.alec.co.uk/. Now you can go and find websites that suits you and have resumes for your industries.

Remember to use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search extensively to learn more about the subject and to find your own websites.

Compile a short CV in which you describe your discovery process:

  1. Your traits and work preferences
  2. The careers/industry areas that you are interested in
  3. The gaps you need to bridge
  4. The plan to bridge these gaps and
  5. At least one business or employment prospect.
  • Help the career seekers you worked with in the group to gather and compile the same information.
  • Make a summary of each one of the three CV’s and submit these summaries as part of your assignment for PCAR02W.
  • Include aspects from the process of constructing the CV’s that you feel are most important.  Use the information that you gathered in your MiCareer Book to compile a piece where you communicate what you have learnt, and make notes about what you can improve on.  Also, note the aspects that went well and that you are pleased with.  Submit this piece as part of your assignments for PCAR02W
  • Discuss the summary with your group members and make sure to listen carefully so that they can help you create your summary.  The successful implementation of the exploration and discovery process with your group therefore determines the level of success in this module.

5.6 IN SUMMARY

At the end of doing and recording the items in all the above sections, you need to complete Assignment 01 for PCAR02W by writing a suitable introduction and conclusion.  Arrange all of the above in a folder and hand it in at UNISA.  Submit your project to Unisa in the correct manner as you have been requested to do in PCAR02W/101/2008.  Also, post your assignment on your Blog.  This will serve as a footprint for potential career seekers in the future.

You are now prepared to communicate what you have learnt to a group of career seekers. You will include practical examples and real life experiences. You are therefore not just completing a course but also a practical training exercise with real experiences to present as evidence. It is possible to help people around you but first we practise how to effectively communicate the value you can add to your clients. We will do this through practising in a safe environment such as your group again. Please refer to the specific section where the first practice round took place.

Congratulations on working through your second module! You will have successfully completed it once you have submitted your assignment and been awarded a mark which states that you have been found to be competent (60% and above).

Now you should be ready for the next exciting experiences.

Key questions

  • How do we uncover gaps in relationships and make plans to bridge them?
  • What is sociometry with regards to choosing relationships or networks for success?
  • What are social networks?
  • How do we organise sociometric and social networks to understand our choice of relationships?
  • What are the limitations of sociometric data?

4.1 INTRODUCTION

By now the career seeker, who is your client, should be aware of his/her opportunities and preferences.  The career seeker should also by now be able to apply the career exploration, discovery and communication processes.

Consider the following case study:

Mpho is considering a midlife career change to grow his contribution to society and earn more. He is struggling to integrate new experiences, interests and relationships.  He needs to build a network consisting of experienced people so that he can learn from them.  Mpho also needs to discover the gaps in the areas of his relationships and make plans and take action to bridge them. We can also state this differently: How do we know what our strengths in relationships are and how can we make plans to grow and apply them?

Mpho visits you as his career guidance practitioner to gain more insight. Using sociometry you are able to help Mpho answer this question: How can he make and apply plans regarding the growth and application of his own strengths in developing required relationships?

4.2 WHAT USE DO SOCIOMETRY AND SOCIAL NETWORKS HAVE FOR CAREER SEEKERS?

Sociometry and social networks are techniques used to explore and become aware of interpersonal relationships throughout existing and new networks. You need to explore the participation of your client in networks and gain insight into current networks through a sociogram.  You might establish that your client

  • does not have insight into the functioning of members in a network
  • does not realise the importance of having access to a network
  • has access to a network/s, but does not utilise this access in his/her favour.

Members of networks use personal data regarding themselves and the purpose of the network to grow their relationships required for their work or goals. PCAR01V/102/2008 and PCAR01V/103/2008 contain tools like the Johari window, which can be used to assess the functioning of the individual within networks. This is to say that they know in which aspect of the group they will function best, be it writing, public speaking, presenting, organising etc. This knowledge can be applied to grow intra personal knowledge and facilitate introspection into your relationships.

Remember that the sociometric and social network processes raise your awareness of your current relationships, why you maintain them and what relationships you require for real success. One of the outcomes of an understanding of the importance of social networks is to build relationships and networks with people of your choice and to learn from them while you share your personal resources (knowledge, experience and values) with them. In this manner, you add value to them, gain from them and create a win-win situation.

Support your preferences of work and industry (selected in PCAR01V) by networking in the next modules. In this unit, we heighten your awareness of current links and networks. You must develop your personal development plan to access and contribute to networks locally, nationally and internationally.

Choose the people you associate with carefully. Partake in activities that will allow you to extend your network in your desired field. This includes the real life projects of which you choose to be a part. These relationships are like capital for future choices and productivity. People in your network are developed through deliberate choice by using your specific traits and preferences. These are principles you should apply throughout your career. Opportunity comes with people and this will help you gain access to both.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 1

  1. Open http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociometry http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_networking_websites
  2. Study the sociometric principles and identify how you would use them to increase your levels of success and grow your network.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search extensively to learn more about the subject. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Discuss with your study colleagues, since each person grows relationships differently!
  5. Useful Sociometric tools can be applied widely in relationship building.
  6. Answer the following:
  • Where and how can you use networking which is aligned with your choices? (Refer to PCAR 01V).
  • How would you cultivate relationships differently from the manner in which your existing work group does? Write down two specific points.
  • Study http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_world_phenomenon and general networking. Investigate the exploration and discoveries of PCAR01V and explore interviews more widely. Discuss your findings with your study group. Practise your newly found skills on them. By doing this you will develop the skills required for effective networking and you will also be able to help your client more effectively.

Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

 

 

 

Feedback:

On completion of the above task you will begin to understand the importance and value of a network. Networking opens up doors and opportunities that would otherwise be very difficult for you as an individual to access. By building networks you also develop trust relationships and acquire other people’s trusted networks. Your entry and access to people who can contribute to your personal growth, therefore increases exponentially.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 2

  1. Refer to your own information from your gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the candidate and use your new awareness of social networks to become aware of relationships (existing and required). How would you grow one new relationship that will further your career options while growing awareness of interests, talents, aptitude, industry exposure and work choice?
  3. Write down an open and a closed question that will help you establish how your client can use sociometric principles and networking to grow his/her network. When your client uses these questions, he/she will become aware of the benefits that go with a wide network and good social relationships. .
  4. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

 

Feedback:

Each person cultivates relationships differently. Be aware of the differences in your group. All of us have our preferences in how we like to build and maintain relationships e.g. meeting up with people at social gatherings for a drink or two or spending time with the people at your sports club or at the church. All of these are examples of places you can meet people, build relationships and form networks. Add value to others and they will introduce you to people you did not know before who can add value to you.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 3

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareer Book gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the Facilitator and guide the candidate to use his/her new awareness of social networks to become aware of relationships (existing and required).   How would you help the candidate to cultivate one new relationship that will further his/her career options while exploring interests, talents, aptitude, industry exposure and work choice?
  3. Where applicable use Dictionary, Wikipedia or a Google search to clarify words and concepts. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. New information gets you and your client thinking and creates an awareness of where you are.
  4. Write down how you facilitated the networking process to grow the career seeker’s current network to one that is closer to the one needed for success. This will include matching aspects such as interests, talents, aptitude, and industry exposure as well as work choice.
  5. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

Be aware that the new networks will be limited by current knowledge and abilities to communicate.  Communication skills from PCAR01V/102/2008 and PCAR01V/103/2008 must be emphasised all the time. Let the career seekers emphasise The Johari Window and Transactional Analysis, as you have used them to grow your awareness, to gain knowledge about yourself and to find words to describe that knowledge.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 4

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareer Book gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the Observer while the facilitator in your study group guides the candidate to use his/her new awareness of social networks to become aware of relationships (existing and required).Take note of how people will interact and grow their interpersonal network differently according to their different interests, talents, aptitude, industry exposure and work choice. Observe these differences and remember that you can apply what you witness in your own context and experience as a Facilitator and Candidate.
  3. Where applicable, use Dictionary, Wikipedia or a Google search to clarify words and concepts.  The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Write down how you observed and gave feedback during networking with your current and required networks. Also write at least one personal lesson you learned from the experience that you can reapply when building your own and your future client’s networks.
  5. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

Be aware that the new networks will be limited by current knowledge and abilities to communicate. Communication skills from PCAR01V/102/2008 and PCAR01V/103/2008 must be emphasised all the time. The career seekers will need practise to develop the ability to effectively communicate their aptitudes and talents to prospective employers and develop their career development and support network successfully.

4.3 SUMMARY

In this unit we discussed sociometrics and social networks to become aware of choices about how to grow people in our networks as a medium to contribute to others. Contributions to others are mostly characterised by reciprocity: what you do to others, they do to you. You never require permission to make contributions to others. Contribution earns you and your clients access to resources and opportunities as explained in PCAR03X (Module 3).

In PCAR01V, Unit 4, we examined the use of networking to determine required access to industries and work skills. The practical application of sociometrics and social networks in PCAR03X will require you to refer back to this module. Always refer to relevant local and international websites, compare, and learn from the ones you used in this course and the ones you will use in the future.

Key questions

  • What is the purpose of an interview?
  • How are questions and questionnaires used in interviews?
  • How are observations used in interviews?
  • What kinds of interviews are there?
  • What are the features of a structured interview?
  • What problems are there with interviews? What can be done about them?
  • What is the procedure for doing an interview?

3.1 CASE STUDY

Mary wants to be a teacher. However, her parents believe that she should study to be a nurse. This makes Mary uncertain. Eventually she decides to go to Mrs Baloyi, a teacher who does career guidance, to help her resolve the issue. Initially they sit, talk, and discuss the issue at length.  Mrs Baloyi asks her numerous questions regarding her likes, dislikes and values.  Exploring and discovering helps her realise that she is indeed interested in similar careers in various industries. In addition, she realises that she can work while expressing her passion.

Mrs Baloyi helps her learners to form groups and visit different industries, schools, hospitals and identified businesses. Mary has thus been guided to do the personal exploration and discoveries mentioned in Module 1. She realises she can apply her talents in many areas and ways. She still enjoys playing with small children, looking after them and teaching them to sing and dance, but the entertainment industry, company crèches and many other jobs also offer appealing opportunities. She can now choose either to access the workplace and learn while she works, or to enter further education. She has learned where and how to apply for bursaries and other funding methods and what the requirements are.

Mrs Baloyi now uses the contents of PCAR03X (Module 3) to prepare Mary for interviews for further education, an industry of choice and work access.  PCAR0xX also guides Mary to inform and ask others for help in her preparation to gain successful access to education, industry of choice, resources, organisations and the Internet.

3.2 PURPOSE OF AN INTERVIEW

This course uses the same techniques that allowed you to explore and discover in preparation for your work and industry selection.  You will use this to guide the career seeker towards successful entry into university or college and access to the workplace.  One of these techniques is the interview.

The case study given above indicates one purpose of the interview.  Can you recognise it?  The above interview was used to guide and expand Mary’s awareness and to let her become aware of and explore and discover interests, aptitudes and values.  Although this is the main purpose of your interview with the career seeker, it is not the only purpose.  A list of uses of interviews includes:

  • Seeking information about a subject, person or company:  Giving information or transferring information through an interview (Wikipedia explain Rhetoric as the triangle of good communication in Ethos, Pathos and Logos)  Read about rhetoric and the three ways to persuade
  • Listening or therapeutic purposes, as in the therapeutic interview:  Sampling opinions, for example, to determine how many people will vote for a certain political party
  • Research or
  • Guiding a person to gain a better self-understanding and insight into job choices.

Module 2, Unit 3, Activity 1

  1. Study these Interview principles.  Consider how this can assist you to match your traits and preferences with industries. You will use the same techniques to help career seekers find their match.
  2. Discuss what you have learnt with colleagues who are studying with you.
  3. Use Dictionary, Wikipedia or a Google and conduct an extensive search to learn more about interviews.
  4. Remember that you are exploring and discovering and the information stimulate our thinking and creates an awareness of where we are and what we know.
  5. Study job interviews and general investigative interviews.  The aim of your study on interviews is to investigate what effect interviews have on your exploration and discovery from PCAR01V.
  6. Answer the following questions:
  • How can you use open and closed questions in an interview?
  • Write down two specific uses for each.
  • Think about the purposes of a structured way of asking questions in the context of an interview.
  • Write down two purposes.

Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Module 2, Unit 3, Activity 2

  1. Refer to your own information in your MiCareer that you gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the candidate. Let the facilitator interview you to investigate one area of your personality, interest, talent and aptitude. Remember that the idea is to focus on and find matching areas of your studies, industry of choice and work choice.
  3. Use Dictionary, Wikipedia and a Google search to explore and discover these matching areas.
  4. Write down an open and a closed question challenging or verifying the match for each area. You must clarify if, how and why the match exists.
  5. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Module 2, Unit 3, Activity 3

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareer that you gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the Facilitator while you guide the candidate to use interviews to investigate one item from his or her personality, interest, talent and aptitude. Focus on his or her studies, industry of choice and work choice.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search to explore and discover matching areas. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask you clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Write down how you facilitated an open and a closed question, challenging or verifying the match for each area.
  5. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.
  6. Discover more about being a facilitator.  Make use of Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/103/2008 for communication skills and websites like mindtools to improve your communication skills.  Remember, in order to get the most out of your interview, you need good communication skills!

Module 2, Unit 3, Activity 4

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareer that you gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Act as an Observer while the facilitator guides the candidate with interviews,
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search to explore and discover matching areas.
  4. Write down how you observed and gave feedback during open and closed questions used in the interview, challenging or verifying the match for each area.
  5. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Discover more about being the Observer.    Explore the Internet to find tips on giving and receiving feedback.  Both the role of the interviewer or the facilitator (the person who guides the conversation) and the interviewee or the candidate (the person who is the focus of the interview and answers the questions – also called the respondent) varies.  However, the facilitator and the candidate role have this in common: the one person seeks information, which is supplied by the other with the aim of achieving mutual benefit. The interviewee/candidate gives access to the interviewer/facilitator to what is ‘inside his/her head.’ As potential career guidance practitioner, you are training to be the facilitator for future clients.

As facilitator, it is your job to assist a person explore and discover his/her knowledge regarding  future career options, e.g. what a career seeker is interested in, his/her likes or dislikes (values and preferences) and their thoughts (attitudes and beliefs) by interviewing them.

Feedback:

Let us briefly return to our case study.  Mrs Baloyi aims to guide Mary. Mary will in turn achieve clarity about opportunities that match her interests and aptitudes. Mrs Baloyi asks the questions and is the interviewer.  Mary, on the other hand, explores, discovers and answers the questions and is the interviewee.

3.3 COMPARING QUESTIONNAIRES AND INTERVIEWS

In the previous study unit, we discussed questions and questionnaires. We looked at how these are used to help you and your future clients make decisions regarding their future careers.   Interviews are personal and therefore people may be more positively inclined towards them.  However, this can be a time-consuming method.  Look at the following table and see whether you can decide what the advantages and disadvantages are of using questionnaires or interviews.

Place a D for disadvantage and an A for advantage next to the aspects which are disadvantages or advantages of each method.
INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE
Information is personally collected by the interviewer Information may be obtained by any person
Very personal Impersonal
Many opportunities for asking questions Questions limited to those on the questionnaire
Probing is possible – delving deeper into the matter Probing is difficult
One (or a few) persons at a time is normally interviewed Many people can answer a questionnaire simultaneously
Reliability is limited Reliability is fair
Interviewee need not be able to read and write Person completing the questionnaire needs to be able to read and write
Emphasis on interview skills of interviewer Emphasis on writing skills of the one who compiles the questionnaire

The direct interaction of the interview is a source of both its advantages and its disadvantages. One advantage is that it allows for greater depth than with other methods of data collection. On the other hand, it is prone to subjectivity and bias on the part of the interviewer. The fact that many individuals can simultaneously use the questionnaire is a great advantage but this also means that it cannot be personalised and collect detailed information from the particular respondent.

3.4   SOME PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED WITH INTERVIEWS

In Unit 1, we spoke about the validity of a measuring instrument.  One of the problems with measuring instruments (such as an interview) is its validity.  A measuring instrument is valid if it tests what it is supposed to test.  In other words, does the test to determine intelligence, really test intelligence or does it test personality, interest or something else?  If it really tests intelligence (and not something else), then the test is valid.

The interview is not always a valid instrument because of bias. Sources of bias are the characteristics of the interviewer, the characteristics of the respondent, and the substantive content of the questions.  In other words, the attitudes and opinions of the interviewer; a tendency of the interviewer to see the respondent in his/her own image; a tendency for the interviewer to seek answers that support his/her preconceived notions; misperceptions on the part of the interviewer of what the respondent is saying; and misunderstandings on the part of the respondent of what is being asked.  Studies have also shown that the following can be sources of bias: race, religion, social class and age.

Module 2, Unit 3, Activity 6

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareer that you gathered to date. Use information from questionnaires in Unit 2 and Interviews in unit 3 to learn and use the techniques together.  Compare the purpose of Questionnaires and Interviews and how they support each other.
  2. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search to explore and discover matching areas. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask you clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  3. Write down two scenarios in which you believe questionnaires (Click on Quantitative to read and understand quantitative) and interview (Click on Qualitative to read and understand qualitative) methods will function best.
  4. Bias in questionnaires: Do you believe that questionnaires are repeatable and tend to be objective? Write a paragraph on your opinion and briefly motivate your answer.
  5. Bias in interviews: Let us say, as a child Mrs Baloyi was unhappy at school. She never liked her teachers and always felt that they were unkind to her and preferred working with other children.  Do you think this could make Mrs Baloyi negatively biased towards people considering the teaching profession?  Write down you answer, Yes or No. Then write a short paragraph explaining your choice.
  6. How do questionnaires and the interviews complement each other? In other words, how can they be used together to reach a common goal?
  7. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

Any interviewer brings his or her bias to the interview and must work hard not to project that past onto the client’s choices. Any interviewer could be biased when discussing the teaching profession with Mary.  Interviewers need to be aware of their own subjective feelings and keep these in check when interviewing their clients.

How can bias be reduced? Consider these suggestions.

  • Careful formulation of questions so that the meaning is clear;
  • Thorough training of interviewers so that they are more aware of the possible problems;
  • An interviewer who is as similar as possible to the respondents, for example, with regard to race or gender;
  • Creating an atmosphere of friendliness and trust so that respondents are honest about their feelings, values and opinions;
  • Look up bias in interviews on the WWW for further infomation; and
  • Get observers during your interviews to give feedback and grow your competencies.

3.5 SUMMARY

In this unit, we explored the use of the interview when enabling you to help your future clients gain self-knowledge and thus enable them to choose an industry or work of their choice while build their career.  This relates to the purpose of interviews.  We have also compared questionnaires and interviews, linked observation and interviews and discussed different kinds of interviews. We also examined the problems with interviews and some possible solutions for these problems. Remember to be aware of of these problems and always to seek solutions of your own. Finally, we reviewed the procedure for conducting an interview.  In the next unit, the techniques of developing groups and connecting to people with resources are discussed.

Key questions

  • How do you ask critical questions that will help the exploration and discovery process?
  • What are the differences between open and closed questions and their different applications?
  • How do you find and connect with your nearest industries?
  • How do you construct and use questionnaires to gather relevant data?
  • How do you match the traits and preferences from Module 1 to studies of industries and jobs?

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Guiding the career seeker to match the information, which he or she has explored and discovered in Module 1 to a suitable job in an industry (which requires workers), is the career guide’s challenge. How does the career guidance practitioner (this is you!) set about doing this?

Career seekers need information about industries, work and gaps in work skills. Career seekers also need an executable plan whereby they can get the necessary access, learn the required skills and eventually thrive in the industry and work of their choice.  Critical questionnaires and questions will assist to challenge various possibilities and at the same time expand their choices.  Critical questioning and the selection of questionnaires can also help the career seeker make informed choices during the exploration and discovery process.

The questions and questioning should challenge and expose the career seeker to various industries and types of work. This will enable him or her to choose between possible jobs within almost any industry.  The questions and questionnaires acquaint the career seeker with the industry words, key phrases and concepts on the Internet. Knowing the words and concepts about the industry or industry jargon makes the next step possible. The career seekers can map out their goals and meet with the relevant people in the chosen industry, while paving the road to their desired careers.

2.2 CASE STUDY

Let us revisit our career seeker, a person with much potential and talent, who does not know much about soccer but wants to participate in it. (PCAR01V, Unit 3)

Not everyone is made to be a professional soccer player. There are, however, aspects relating to the game that may suit a wide variety of talents and can open the doors to many careers. It is with this in mind that you as career guide have to engage your client. The person is interested in sports, soccer in particular. It is possible to find suitable careers around that main interest that matches the person’s other interests, aptitudes and abilities in a clear and practical way. A questionnaire is a useful way to engage with a client.

2.3 TYPES OF QUESTIONS AND QUESTIONNAIRES

A questionnaire consists of a series of questions compiled by researchers the world over. In this course, you are the guide who should assist the career seeker to complete the questionnaires you have chosen on behalf of the career seeker or client. So you need to help your clients identify information regarding their aptitudes, interests, personalities and values. Once this has been done, you will have to help them find information regarding possible careers. The questionnaires must be carefully selected and critical questions must be derived from the structured results that you explored and discovered during PCAR01V.

There are two main types of questions in questionnaires: Open (unstructured) questions and closed (structured) questions.

Module 2, Unit 2, Activity 1

  1. Study open and closed questions, keeping in mind that you will assist and establish matches to a specific Industry with the career seeker’s traits and preferences.
  2. Discuss your findings with your colleagues who are studying with you.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search extensively to learn more about the subject. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Answer these questions:
  • Where and how do you use open and closed questions? Write down two specific points.
  • Use open and closed questions at home to establish a family member’s interests.  Share one example.
  • Explore questioning more widely.

Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Module 2, Unit 2, Activity 2

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareerBook gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Act as the candidate and match one item from your areas of personality, interest, talent and aptitude with your study area, industry, and work choice.  Ask your facilitator to use open and closed questions to assist you with this process.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search to explore and discover matching areas. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions for your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Write down an open and closed question challenging and verifying the match for each area.
  5. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Module 2, Unit 2, Activity 3

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareerBook gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the Facilitator and guide the candidate to use open and closed questions to match one item from the areas of personality, interest, talent and aptitude with his/her area of study, industry and work choice.  Discover more about being a facilitator.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search to explore and discover matching areas.
  4. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  5. Write down how you facilitated in the formulation of an open and a closed question to challenge and verify the match for each area.
  6. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Module 2, Unit 2, Activity 4

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareerBook gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the Observer while the facilitator guides the candidate to use open and closed questions to match one item from the areas of personality, interest, talent and aptitude with his/her area of study, industry and work choice.  Discover more about being an Observer.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search to explore and discover matching areas.
  4. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  5. Write down how you observed and gave feedback during the formation and answering of the open and closed questions, challenging and verifying the match for each area.
  6. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Although there are endless variations of the exploration processes, we leave the rest for you to discover in a similar way using the Internet and with local experts.

We recommend you learn about questionnaires and their construction to be able to choose and use them with greater effect. As an example, we chose the Likert scale as type of questionnaire.  In this questionnaire, two opposites are stated and the respondent has to position him or her self on a continuum, which links the two opposites. In this manner, a visual profile then represents the respondent’s personal opinion regarding the topic.

Module 2, Unit 2, Activity 5

  1. Study the Likert scale and its uses during the exploration and discovery process that you do with your clients.  You may find many new words and concepts.
  2. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search extensively. Remember you are exploring and discovering! You grow even more when you discuss uses, concepts and words with experts near you.
  3. Answer these questions:
  • Where is the Likert scale used? Write down two specific points.
  • How can the Likert scale be applied to ensure the career seeker’s traits and preferences are matched with the studies, industry and work which they do?
  • Name two other scales you can use and state why you chose them. Find two study and career verification questionnaires that use the Likert scale. Why did you choose them?

Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Gaining an understanding of the types of questions and where they are used will provide you with a framework from which to work when choosing questionnaires. Being aware of other scales will help you  to choose the best one for your specific purpose. Being knowledgeable about these tools will make your job a lot easier and your service much more effective and reliable. It is important to work from established examples to prevent yourself from ‘re-inventing the wheel’ for questionnaires.

2.4 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF     QUESTIONNAIRES

We include a brief study of questionnaires, their purpose and their construction should you require them in your career guidance quest. The course modules include many web-based questionnaires for you to use and you should be able to find for most purposes. A good knowledge of questionnaires will help you choose and use them.

Advantages include the following:

  • It is a relatively ‘quick’ way to help people explore and discover new things about them and gather information since any number of people can complete them simultaneously and exchange and discuss the information.
  • If the chosen questionnaires are carefully compiled, or chosen from the web and along with other local sources, you can ask someone else to administer the exploration and discovery questionnaire on your behalf.  This is not possible with, for example, an interview or observation.
  • It is generally regarded as a reliable instrument for the career seeker to gather information, gain insight and quickly expand awareness of self and industries.
  • A questionnaire puts less pressure on respondents because they can complete it in their own time.
  • Questionnaires can help to focus the attention of the respondents on the main issues involved.
  • If the responses are structured, it is relatively easy to interpret the results.
  • It is repeatable and includes knowledge and experiences from many people worldwide. You become part of worldwide fraternities and by doing so, expand your networks.

Disadvantages include:

  • It takes a lot of time to construct a good questionnaire. Learn from the questionnaires you used and attempt to construct your own brief (five questions) localized exploration and discovery questionnaire. This will be good practice for future implementation of questionnaires. Refer to 2.5 for further assistance. Check the questionnaire with people in your community. Use the processes from Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/102/2008 and Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/103/2008 when you approach them.
  • If questions are incorrectly understood, nothing can be done about it.  However, in interviews misunderstandings can usually be cleared up.
  • It is difficult to determine whether respondents answered honestly.
  • You cannot ask secondary questions to probe the career seeker’s responses.  When you are interviewing someone, you are able to check your understanding, clarify meaning, and confirm the accuracy of your information.
  • Questionnaires can only be used interactively with people, who are illiterate, have low vocabularies and who are low on industry exposure.

2.5 COMPILING A QUESTIONNAIRE

Read about how a questionnaire should be constructed.

You should keep in mind a few guidelines when constructing or assessing a questionnaire:

  • Keep questions or instructions relevant to the career seeker and the issue under research.
  • Keep questions or instructions clear and simple.
  • Sequence questions or instructions in a logical way.
  • The format is clear (e.g. how and where to fill in required information).
  • The nature of questions/instructions shows sensitivity to issues of race, class, religion and gender.
  • Questionnaires are administered in a proper and ethical manner.

2.6 SUMMARY

In this study unit, we discussed questioning and questionnaires as methods to determine knowledge of the interest, aptitude, personality and values of students.  We discussed the two main types of questions, namely open and closed questions.  We also addressed the issue around choosing a valid and an effective questionnaire.  The advantages and the disadvantages of questionnaires were highlighted. During the use of questions and questionnaires, the career seeker gains new insights and information.  As observation yields valuable information, it is often used in conjunction with other evaluation media.

1.1 OUTCOMES

After completing this module, you should be able to do the following competently:

  • find jobs with matching earnings potential that relates to traits and attributes explained in Module 1.
  • ensure the match by cross checking and using critical questioning.
  • communicate interests to attract and access resources.
  • identify the obstacles preventing access to industries and jobs.
  • know how to access industries and jobs.

1.2 CASE STUDY

Bongani is uncertain of how to manage his life after school.  He is in Grade 12 and does well at school and wants to continue his studies after school.  However, Bongani cannot decide what he should study – whether he should play sport professionally, farm or study for a career in the technical, scientific, medical, legal or engineering fields. With so many opportunities it is hard to choose. Bongani does not really know the requirements for entry into the various industries and the multitude of job possibilities within them. What are the gaps in his knowledge? How can he bridge them? Where can he find the necessary resources?

Consequently, he decides to visit his Career Guidance Practitioner where he explores and discovers his interests, values, aptitudes and career preferences. He then finds Ezines, White Papers, magazines and other literature about his career preference and interests. He finds the companies nearest to him and organises a group to visit them. He learns more concepts and terms about the industry in which he is interested and gains clarity about the work of his choice and how to build a career. He realises that jobs are plentiful and he becomes aware of the gaps he needs to fill to find a job. As a result, he tackles his studies diligently as the direction he wants to follow becomes clearer. He even attends extra classes where needed and improves his grades. Bongani intuitively knows what he wants. His prior decisions in family and school activities have indicated strongly to him what this is and he will obtain feedback from them during the Career Practitioner processes.

Bongani can also get a professional opinion from an educational psychologist if he requires further information.  The tests used by these psychologists are graded against a norm based on Western standards and norms.  However, this means that the outcome is not always applicable to local people.  There is also a range of personality tests on the Internet.  Knowledge is power and being knowledgeable about oneself is paramount in utilising that power.

In this module, you will practise job-finding skills with someone in your group or with a friend or family member. It is important that you gain practical experience and knowledge in a safe and controlled environment.   This will demonstrate to you how to find, organise and communicate by the process of awakening your own interests and then accompanying a group member, friend or family member through the same process. This will reflect the process that Bongani has to go through in the above example. Remember your personal exploration and discovery process in Module 1 and try to re-apply that process. In addition, always remember to capture the results and your experiences in your MiCareer Book and MiActivity Book. This module also indicates the beginning of the accumulation of a long reference list of accessible resources. These resources would include the introduction on access to money and the expansion of possible work opportunities (from your exploration and discovery in Module 1).

1.3 PROCESSES TO FIND JOB CHOICES AND ORGANISATIONS

It is important that you are aware of the benefit of exploring and discovering. The Career Guidance Practitioner uses these formalised processes to gain a greater vocabulary to describe the interests and talents of his/her clients. It is the Career Guide’s task to help the career seeker use the information to identify and locate suitable industries and the jobs within them.

After the career seekers have learned about their various aptitudes, skills, strengths and communication abilities, the Career Guide can help them become aware of the requisite attributes and current gaps.  The Career Guide will also assist them to bridge those gaps while they become conscious of the available opportunities. Remember some people only need to become aware of opportunities to get moving. Others will need more guidance and support over an extended period.

Remember that your aim is eventually to guide your client through the same processes as in Module 1.

Moreover, always remember to capture the experiences with your career seeker or client in your MiCareer Book and on your Blog. This will eventually grow into a list of experiences that you can re-apply during your dealings with other clients.  The process to identify a list of job choices is discussed in more detail in Module 2 Unit 2.

After you have made your client aware of the opportunities and gaps, you can expand the search for more work options and opportunities. Apply your own expertise on the web and the information regarding career guidance to guide your client through the web while using his/her own interests and aptitudes and relevant descriptive words. This will ensure that your client grows independently and that he/she will remain interested because it is his /her personal journey with you as a guide.

Module 2, Unit 1, Activity 1

Work with your group and make a list of five possible job opportunities in accordance with the client’s interests and attributes.

  1. Enter his/her favorite work keywords using Google as a search engine.  Scan the first few hits for interesting websites.  This will produce new and relevant keywords, industries and opportunities.  Use these words in more searches.
  2. Use the results and search for businesses in a specific geographical area (nationally or internationally).
  3. Write industry specific words and combine them with words in the client’s talent and interest area.
  4. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or Google search extensively to learn more about the subject.
  5. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your Blog for the CV exercises.
  6. Record your experiences from completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

This is a practical experience of the type of situation you will encounter as a Career Guide. You will need to build up your experience with the process and other people to succeed in this field.  This exercise is merely a tool to achieve that goal.  Moreover, to help others you must understand and believe that there are many opportunities up for grabs. One of the ways to grasp these opportunities is to repeat the exercises with your clients in order for them to be enabled to access industries and production.  In the following units, we will examine how these exploration processes can enable you to help students gain knowledge about themselves as unique individuals and make informed and realistic career decisions.

1.4 OVERVIEW

The overview gives you a broad picture of what you will explore and discover in this module.  Refer to this after completing each unit and see where everything fits in.

UNIT I: INTRODUCTION

The expected outcomes for the PCAR02W (Module 2) are summarised.

The first unit’s aim is to help you become more aware of your role as a career guidance practitioner.  The concept of finding jobs and organisations are therefore introduced and experienced.

UNIT 2: QUESTIONNAIRES AND QUESTIONING TO MATCH JOBS IN INDUSTRY TO TRAITS AND PREFERENCES

Explore and discover through questionnaires and questioning how to expose the career seeker to various industries and types of work.

UNIT 3: INTERVIEWS TO VERIFY STUDY, INDUSTRY AND WORK

Prepare the career seeker for successful entry into university or college and access to the work place through interviews.

UNIT 4: SOCIOMETRY AND SOCIAL NETWORKS

Explore and discover interpersonal relationships throughout existing and new networks with sociometry and social networks while also learning the value of selected networks.

UNIT 5: PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER – A CASE STUDY

Integrate your knowledge, complete the assignments and get ready for the next Module.

1. INTRODUCTION

The processes of communication are vital to the Career Guidance Practitioner and the career seeker. Both groups require access to people with resources and opportunities. Communication skills form the basis of gaining access to people with resources and opportunities. PCAR01V/103/2008 introduces the minimum required communication skills you require to access people with resources and opportunities.

We chose the minimum communication processes to get you started. We included sources of the processes to assist you to pass these communication skills to the career seekers.

Practise the competencies during PCAR with your work groups and the working experts you need to reach. Refer back to the communication application processes all the time. Make these skills your own.

2. BUILD RELATIONSHIPS

Choose to develop trust and then to trust each other

  1. When the chemistry between you and the others is not as it should be, admit it and make provision for it. You are often going to be faced with similar situations in the workplace. Learn to use differences to everybody’s advantage. Stick to the task and learn from the various differences that exist between the team members. Bring in external people for resolution when it looks like you may be stuck. It is a natural process in the workplace and is an acceptable part of most cultures.
  2. The goal is to experience, practise and grow, not endure. Experience how we learn quicker when the processes are applied and the rules are consistently adhered to. Remember that learning is a process accompanied by setbacks, but you learn the most when forced to overcome adversity. That is how we learned everything we have mastered throughout life, such as walking and talking.
  3. Be aware of the differences between each one in the group as facilitator, observer and as the candidate.
  • You are not trying to change each other whether you are facilitators, observers or candidates. You are developing, accepting and accommodating each other. Each one uses his or her learning style(s) in order to complete the activities.
  • Since each one relies on the processes (one is applying an external process and relying on external expertise), it is each one’s challenge to adjust, adapt, and find a way to be open and honest.
  • Refrain from using sarcasm and arrogance. It is contrary to the exploration, discovery and consequent learning experiences.
  • Acknowledge your fears; admit unknowns and admit when you do not understand. This kind of admission is powerful in the work environment and calls for immediate attention. However, in our cultures, it might be regarded as weakness.

PCAR01V/103/2008: Activity 1

The interactive session

You should repeat the following process with your clients.  Keep records of this process in your MiCareer Book for future reference.

  1. Listen closely to work out the real problem.
  2. Check to see if the client has prepared and invested time and effort in assignments.
  3. Assess the situation.
  4. Together think in terms of realistic objectives; develop a “contract” of: Agreed upon learning outcomes and Expectations of communication.
  5. Decide on availability and amount of sessions (one or several).
  6. Decide on the means of communication (face-to-face, e-mail, telephone, etc.)
  7. Assist each other to: Demonstrate or model similar processes & Ask when you do not know something.  You can refer the candidate to more sources, including other experts.  In addition, you can take the opportunity to learn problem solving.  Bring back answers, and demonstrate that you are in a learning process as well.
  8. Give positive feedback and use encouraging vocabulary.  Find success and reinforce effort even with minor accomplishment.
  9. Summarise and review.
  10. Enable follow-up.
  11. Celebrate accomplishment!

Tutoring strategies for the facilitator and observer roles

  1. Become a more effective tutor by obtaining suitable training material.  This includes subject matter as well as tutoring procedures.
  2. Help and encourage the candidate to get into situations where effective communication in English is paramount. When in these situations clearly establish the roles of the candidate, observer and facilitator. Always keep in mind the background of the candidate and the role of classmates, department, school and family.
  3. Keep and follow a consistent set of processes. Refer to the processes listed later on. Clear processes with rules are necessary, but must be mutually agreed upon with the candidate. They must be fair and enforced consistently.  These processes along with clear rules reduce unnecessary struggles.
  4. Have a clear idea of the strengths and limitations that you can apply in the processes.  Establish for yourself what skills or knowledge you can offer in the role of facilitator and observer.  Remember that one reward of facilitating and observing is the opportunity to learn and to apply what you have learned in similar situations.
  5. Learning is a process that almost always involves unsuccessful attempts. It is often called failing forward.  But this is actually not failure, since options are eliminated with a view to arriving at the correct solution.  Learning and problem solving require passing through a period of sorting facts and options necessary for success.
  6. The whole group (facilitator, observer and candidate) must discover their strengths and challenges in learning.  Discover for yourselves under what circumstances each one learns best from the processes and exercises you apply.  And when do you perform poorly?

PCAR01V/103/2008: Activity 2

  1. Become aware of all the different learning styles each of us use. Use VAK (Visual, Auditory and Kinetic) methods.
  2. Know that most of us learn verbally. Never forget the importance of body language and tone of voice.
  3. Use your MiCareer Book to write your and your groups learning styles.

3. EXPLORE AND DISCOVER

In this course your will learn how to explore and discover in order to make informed choices. These exploration exercises will utilise the web.

You will become aware of what you like to do and what your strengths and weaknesses are.  You will gain experiences and awareness and subsequently enable yourself to make your own choices.  This is what you should be doing for your future clients.  Make them aware of their choices and of the tools available, guide them through situations where they can experience, practise and make their own choices.

PCAR01V/103/2008: Activity 3

  1. What do you like to do? Find words describing what you enjoyed about past activities.
  2. What are your strengths?  Find words describing your strengths.
  3. Use the results from www.assessment.com to find more words.
  4. Ask your group, friends, and family for input.  Different views are always very informative!
  5. Search for these words and their meanings and synonyms under www.wikipedia.org & www.dictionary.com.
  6. Use those words in the Google search engine and find White papers, web sites, and online magazines to broaden your search on the words.
  7. Choose three websites that you like and say why you choose them and what you enjoy about them.  Try persevering until you find something that really looks interesting to you!
  8. Use your MiCareer Book to write your words, websites, and answers.

Now that you have made use of the search words, you should be more comfortable using the search engine for this purpose.  You also had your very first exercise in exploring and discovering.

In the later modules, we will use these words to search for local and global companies/businesses of your choice.  During these exercises you will find we use these explore and discover exercises to connect to the real world.  You will have to help your clients to grow an awareness of opportunities, their talents, their skills and gaps. Teach them to explore, discover and engage.  Your client must be able to find a business they like and make successful appointments.  This course and these activities will teach you how to do this.

4.     NETWORKING

Gain access to people with resources and wisdom within a safe environment. Start accessing the elders in your community and people in the industry of your choice.  You will gain from their wisdom and the safety of their knowing what you should do. They will be able to guide you and show you what to avoid.  Continue doing this throughout your career.

You will need to use some basic skills to access these experts, professionals and elders.  Follow these guidelines, not only for this course, but also for your whole career path and you are guaranteed success.

  1. Always use the Task: “To relax” by breathing and moving your fingers. This tool will help you to put your thinking brain in charge of all responses. In other words, you will not react emotionally and rashly.  For fun: http://library.thinkquest.org/C0114820/logical/ We will explain the “To relax” task in more detail in task 6.
  2. Start communicating and growing relationships with your local elders, cultural leaders, and professionals (psychological services, legal profession, accounting, civic leaders, and business leaders).  Other people will automatically trust you if you work with the elders, leaders and professionals.  Your business will grow faster and you will earn more by maintaining these relationships. Remember: always meet with the above people and discuss what you are busy doing.  This will increase your access to resources, and you will gain insight from the wisdom of elders.  You will stay connected with locals and those people that can form part of the value you will add to career seekers. You will need them to complete your career expo participation in the last assignment.
  3. We use language to communicate with the above people.  Use  www.dictionary.com all the time to learn new words.  Learn from  www.bbc.co.uk to pronounce English correctly.  Remember to share your own culture and home language with mother tongue English speakers.  They can help you with your English and you can teach them your language. Grow together!
  4. You will learn to use your interest and curiosity to search, read, discuss and develop the choices you have with local professionals and elders. This is what lifelong learners do. This is what you should keep on doing, even after you are finished with the course.  Remember: never move too far away from your local way of thinking.  Always grow in concert with local wisdom while applying it. Keep growing and searching for new ways of thinking.
  5. When you have finished this course, you will have used a lot of free information.  It is then time for contributing in a value exchange. You always attempt to contribute more than you receive. That way your family’s work capacity grows, the community’s income grows and your country’s economy grows. Now you must make your experience available to others to make it easier and quicker for them to learn.  You are contributing and attracting resources by becoming visible to your clients and future partners. During the course, you will publish what you have learned on your Blog.  Remember:  all your future clients and other career practitioner learners will come to your Blog to learn from your blogged footprints. You will also in turn learn from their blogs, and this is what value exchange means in practice.

5.     START GROWING YOUR COMMUNICATIONS SKILLS!

Remember to relax!  Breathe deeply while you move your fingers and toes. Feel the relaxing effect. Your thinking brain is now in charge. Do this whenever you feel anxious during the many new experiences.

Through whole communication (The four elements of whole communication: observed facts, perceived facts, what each one feels and thinks.) you will understand your preferences, what is important (what do you want from your life), and how you are going to choose work and responses on the way.  You will learn to communicate with others, understand them better and in return grow increasingly meaningful relationships.  There are many tools to aid you with whole communication.  We have chosen a few examples for the purpose of this course:

  1. The Johari window (Ask for information and share information)
  2. Transactional Analysis (How we interact and grow understanding)
  3. Venn diagram (Segmenting and organising what we want, facts and feelings)
  4. Learn from Victor Frankl and the African bush

JOHARI WINDOW

From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johari_window

A. Manali’s Johari window

The Johari window is a comparison tool created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham — thus the Joe-Harry/Johari window — in 1955 in the United States. It is used to help people better understand their interpersonal communication and relationships. It is used primarily in self-help groups and corporate settings as an investigating exercise.

For this exercise you will need to work with a group of two friends.

Quadrants (the four divisions in the Johari window)

Terms selected only by you, but not by any of your friends or family, are placed into the Façade quadrant (the mask quadrant).  This represents information about you that your friends or family are unaware of.  Only you know this about yourself.  It is up to you whether or not you want to disclose this information to your friends.

Terms that are not selected by you but only by your friends and family are placed into the Blind Spot quadrant. These represent information of which you are not aware, but others are, and they can decide whether and how to inform you about these “blind spots“.

Terms which were not selected by either you or your friends and family remain in the Unknown quadrant.  This represents your behaviors or motives which were not recognised by anyone participating. This may be because they do not apply, or because none of you are aware of the existence of trait.

Johari Adjectives

The Johari Windows consists of 55 adjectives used to describe you.  Five or six are used by each peer, in alphabetical order:

  • able
  • accepting
  • adaptable
  • bold
  • brave
  • calm
  • caring
  • cheerful
  • clever
  • complex
  • confident
  • dependable
  • dignified
  • energetic
  • extroverted
  • friendly
  • giving
  • happy
  • helpful
  • idealistic
  • independent
  • ingenious
  • intelligent
  • introverted
  • kind
  • knowledgeable
  • logical
  • loving
  • mature
  • modest
  • nervous
  • observant
  • organized
  • patient
  • powerful
  • proud
  • quiet
  • reflective
  • relaxed
  • religious
  • responsive
  • searching
  • self-assertive
  • self-conscious
  • sensible
  • sentimental
  • shy
  • silly
  • spontaneous
  • sympathetic
  • tense
  • trustworthy
  • warm
  • wise
  • witty

PCAR01V/103/2008: Activity 4

Get to know your preferences in work and behaviour and your friends’ preferences in work and behaviour, using the Johari window.  By using the words in the table above, each person, including you, should choose six words that describe the candidate (this is you!).  These words are then written in the applicable quadrant (*a quadrant is one of the smaller blocks contained within the large block) in the table below.  The words that all three group-members chose come in the Arena.  The words that only your friends choose come in the Blind Spot.  The words chosen by you, but not your friends, come in the Façade – refer to the method described above.

Discuss the terms Arena, Blind Spot and Façade; make sure all involved understand all three terms (Discussed in the previous paragraphs).

The Johari window has four quadrants – what do they do with the fourth one?

Publish this (your old and new insights) under the heading Johari window in your MiCareer Book and your Blog.

TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS

We enjoyed the book “The Games People Play” by Eric Berne. We learnt a great deal about transactional analysis. Using transactional analysis you can appreciate the different ways in which we communicate, whether it is the nurturing parent, adult or playful child. Being aware of these ways of communication helps to build and mature our ways of communicating.

Read the web site against the guidelines below. Find the information for yourself.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transactional_analysis The model or theory is used for exploration and discovery of communication as well as for finding personality preferences. The awareness is half the battle. Once we know and are aware of that we do it automatically.

What are the games in “Games People Play”?  In Games People Play, Berne defined games as the following:

“A game is an ongoing series of complementary ulterior transactions progressing to a well-defined, predictable outcome. Descriptively, it is a recurring set of transactions… with a concealed motivation… or gimmick.”

To explain Berne’s definition, think of a game as a series of interactions (words, body language, facial expressions, etc.) between two or more people that follow a predictable pattern. The interactions ultimately progress to an outcome in which one individual obtains a “payoff” or “goal.”  In most cases, the participants in games are unaware that they are “playing”.

What does “Payoff” or “goal” mean? You eventually become aware of different aspects of life, which were previously unknown or not clearly defined.  This can be positive or negative.  A “payoff” is something you are subconsciously looking for in relationships: affirmation, love or a critique, anything you are not aware that you lack.

PCAR01V/103/2008: Activity 5

  1. Use the information you gathered and identify what interested you.
  2. Record everything in your MiCareer Book.
  3. Over time, you will grow your insights as to what happened in your life and the effect it had on you.  You will sharpen your ability to answer honestly about these experiences and how they contributed to who you now are. The processes and tools that you use to complete your PoE and MiCareer Book generate content for you to talk about, to learn from and from which you might differ.  For you, the value of this exercise lies in the challenge to face personal facts about yourself.  You are required to look at your answers and the facts neutrally by using structured thinking.

Read and understand Transactional Analysis. We all play the games and some of which we did not choose for our best interest. Learn to consider your responses and take action to grow and produce more value to others and thus to earn more.

VENN DIAGRAM THINKING SKILLS

Adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venn_diagram:

Sets A and B

The orange circle (set A) might represent, for example, all living creatures which are two-legged. The blue circle (set B) might represent living creatures which can fly. The area where the blue and orange circles overlap, (which is called the intersection), contains all living creatures which can both fly and have two legs — for example, parrots. (Imagine each separate type of creature as a point somewhere in the diagram.)

Humans and penguins would be in the orange circle, in the part which does not overlap with the blue circle. Mosquitoes have six legs, and fly, so the point for mosquitoes would be in the part of the blue circle which does not overlap with the orange one. Things which do not have two legs and cannot fly (for example, whales and rattlesnakes) would all be represented by points outside both circles. Technically, the Venn diagram above can be interpreted as “the relationships of set A and set B which may have some (but not all) elements in common”.

The combined area of sets A and B is called the union of sets A and B. The union in this case contains all things with legs and things that can fly and things that can fly who have two legs.

The area in both A and B, where the two sets overlap, is defined as A∩B, that is A intersected with B. The intersection of the two sets is not empty, because the circles overlap, i.e. there are creatures that are in both the orange and blue circles. Sometimes a rectangle called the Universal set is drawn around the Venn diagram to show the space of all possible things. As mentioned above, a whale would be represented by a point that is not in the union, but is part of the Universe of living creatures. A Venn diagram is a diagram used to divide up two or more objects to view similarities and differences.

Using the Venn diagram

Later in this module you will explore your interests, values, aptitude and abilities.  This will all be entered in the Venn diagram to see overlaps and determine your passions.  You will use the words in the Johari window to enter into the Venn diagram.

http://www.logictutorial.com/

Relax to get the thinking brain in charge

During changes and when confronted with an unknown situation we all get anxious and start breathing quickly and we tense up the muscles in our bodies. Have you ever felt that happen? Breathe deeply and slowly.  Move your fingers and toes and feel the relaxation pass through your body. Your thinking brain is immediately in charge. For interest find some relaxation web sites and read more about relaxation.

Learn from Victor Frankl and the African bush:

  • Being jungle savvy will keep you alive in the real jungle of life. We live in Africa and find great inspiration from African nature – the bush and the animals. We will mention more about that in later tutorials.
  • Twinkle and breathe during your day to stay relaxed and focused.
  • What you think is who you are. Viktor Frankl knew this and chose how he thought and what he thought of,   even when he was in the most extreme of conditions.  Read about Victor Frankl in his book: “Man’s search for        meaning”.

Read about him: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viktor_Frankl

Breathe, twinkle and wiggle!

Also, see “motivation” on Wikipedia

PCAR01V/103/2008: Activity 6

Always act in your best interest under any circumstance.  Do this quick Twinkle and Breathe exercise:

  1. Sit or stand with your back nice and straight.
  2. Move your fingers and toes and feel control shift to your rational brain.
  3. Now take a deep breath and hold it for ten seconds. Breathe out slowly and take 10 normal small breaths. Repeat both processes five times.
  4. Simply be in charge of your brain and body to make good rational choices in your own best interest at all times.
  5. Repeat the processes to keep the body serving the brain for productive choices and your actions. Do it before meeting people or calling people and when you sit down to work or during your lunch break.

You can work more, play more and have more fun. Most stress related diseases could not affect you since you stay relaxed and do more.

In addition, look at how different people are motivated. We believe what comes into our minds drives desires and fears. Your desires and fears drive your actions. Actions leads to habits and habits lead to your character (or who you are), what you value and what you believe. It really does matter how you allow stuff to come into your mind, because it drives what you think. It is an awesome thing, to know you have the power to choose.  This is the building blocks of who you are and what you will become. Choose carefully what you allow into your mind.

DEALING WITH YOURS AND OTHER’S FEELINGS

“Acting in best interests”

Always act in your own and others best interests for value preservation and growth.  Dealing with yours and others inputs, thoughts, feelings and appreciate any kind of feedback through the conversion processes below.

The purpose of “Acting in best interests” module:

Respond versus react.

Find the value in interactions.

Grow relationships through contact with other people.

Whole communication means we take a moment to look at the four broad categories driving our choice of words. The process also forces our rational brain into action.

  1. Observed facts.
  2. Perceived facts.
  3. What we feel.
  4. What we think.

We share useful practices to stand back and keep acting in your and others’ best interests all the time.

Implement “Act in best interests”

Always get your body and brain calm and ready for best interest choice of action.

Breathe deeply, move your fingers and toes (Twinkle) sit upright and move your back or waggle. Feel yourself relax. In extreme situations, we can recommend more intense exercises.

Now you are ready for the issue at hand.

What is the issue? Who is impacted or affected? Will it still matter tomorrow, next week or next year? If it does not matter let it go, picture the problem in your hand and gently blow it away.

If it matters, proceed to find alternatives with solutions and test for implementation. The alternatives are required as a fall back, if the chosen alternative is too tough to implement. Grow from any event, opportunity, difference or conflict by pulling resources into your implementation plans. People like solutions and participation. While any situation is viewed as a problem without a solution, you will stand alone.

Where to use “Acting in best interests”?

This process works for most interactions and it also turns good situations into great ones.

When you feel overcome with anger or disillusionment, apply the process and maintain a solution based mindset. People around you will also be affected in a positive way as you will reduce tension in the workplace while finding solutions to befit all involved.

Remember to use sites like www.assessment.com and learn more about your work preferences.

Share the results with friends and work colleagues for higher returns and impact.

Share the solution based mindset with two friends and find out how it will benefit them.

PCAR01V/103/2008: Activity 7

A thought process exercise.  When you are confronted with challenging situations or statements at work:

  1. STOP! Do not answer or react immediately. Always inform the other person or group you are with what you observe your perceived facts, feelings and thoughts.
  2. Say, “Just give me a moment; let me gather my thoughts.”
  3. Now think about the answer that will benefit all in that specific situation. You can use the list of processes and questions in the last chapter to help.
  4. Attempt to understand, in terms of whole communication, what is meant or what drives the statement. It is never personal. It is always perceptions. Defence and attacks are the enemies of growth and relationships.
  5. Acting defensively will not help either. Rather get more information through calmly asking about what the other person thinks and how he or she feels. Find clarity before acting.
  6. Ensure you have as much information as possible before suggesting a solution.
  7. Run through a compressed version of Explore – Discover – Engage in your mind.
  8. Remember the Games People Play and Transaction analysis of Eric Berne.

6.     SUMMARY

This is the third tutorial letter, which is linked to PCAR01V. The subsequent modules rely heavily on the information that you have been given in the first three tutorial letters in PCAR01V.

Tutorial letter PCAR01V/103/2008 required you to think about the communication skills that you need to be a successful career guidance practitioner.

You have been given tips on how to build relationships. This entails choosing to develop trust and then to trust each other; it means developing tutoring strategies for yourself in the facilitator and in the observer role; and this might mean that you have to use the Visual, Auditory and Kinetic method to identify the different learning styles of your clients; , how to explore and discover

Secondly, you learned how to explore and discover in order to make informed choices. This was done by means of accessing the information that is available on the internet and assessing whether it is suitable for use in your own future.

Thirdly, the importance of networking was explored. You discovered how to gain access to people with resources and wisdom within a safe environment in order to make it possible to establish yourself as a community based career guidance practitioner.

Fourthly, we explained to you how to start growing your communication skills. In order to do this, you investigated the Johari Window, gained an understanding of Transactional Analysis, practised to segment and organise what you want by using the Venn diagram, and finally, you learned from Victor Frankl and the African bush. A vital part of this was dealing with yours and other’s feelings as you learned to act in other’s interest by using whole communication.

I hope that you find this information stimulating and helpful in your journey towards establishing yourself as career guidance practitioners.

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