Wikipedia

These tests will help you identify your main areas of personal strength. It is important to understand what work you enjoy doing and keep on developing your career in that direction. Do more of what you like and delegate the things you do not enjoy doing.

Please note that career tests like these are guidelines only. Use the results of these tests to make up your own mind on specific career choices. You gave to trust your instinct and not follow the advice given in any career test blindly. Use the test results to guide your natural instant towards what kind of work you enjoy doing.

1.      http://similarminds.com/career.html
Do the career personality test and find the career that suits your personality.
 
2.     http://www.personalitytype.com/career_quiz?type=1
Discover your perfect career through the free personality type quiz.  Read more about the Myers-Briggs type indicator http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myers-Briggs_Type_Indicator
 
3.      http://www.careertest.net/
Another Myers-Briggs type career test.  Match your personality type to your ideal career.
 
4.      http://www.keirsey.com/sorter/instruments2.aspx?partid=0
“The Keirsey Temperament Sorter®-II (KTS®-II) is the most widely used personality instrument in the world. It is a powerful 70 question personality instrument that helps individuals discover their personality type.”
 
5.      http://www.whatcareerisrightforme.com/
Find out what career is best suited for your skills and abilities.
 
6.      http://www.3smartcubes.com/pages/tests/career_skills/career_skills_instructions.asp
“These are the questions one must think over when looking at career options. It is very important to have a good basic idea of where your strong points lie and what your weaknesses are. This test shows you how to recognize your abilities and how to turn your weaknesses into strong points. This information will increase your opportunities at work and it’ll lead to success in everyday life.”
 
7.      http://www.careerplanner.com/Career-Articles/Career-Aptitude-Test.cfm
Determine your passion and match it with a lost of careers and job titles.
 
8.      http://www.careerpath.com/career-tests/
Career tests that will help you on your career path.
 
9.      http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/surveys/careers/
“Find out which career suits you best.”
 
10. ICC Web http://www.iccweb.com/perfect_career.htm
A personal assessment tool to help you discover your career direction.
 
11. http://www.dreamit-doit.com/content/toolkit/quiz.php
“What part of the working world suits you best?”
 
12. Jobsetc http://www.jobsetc.gc.ca/toolbox/quizzes/quizzes_home.do
“Identify your abilities and get a list of matching occupations to explore.”
 
13. http://www.fabjob.com/tips215.html
Find out if you enjoy more working with people, information, things or doing something creative.

Key questions

  • Why is a job-shadowing contract necessary?
  • What is in a job-shadowing contract?
  • How do you become useful in the workplace?
  • What is a Learnership?

2.1 Introduction

As career guide, you must show prospective job seekers how they can go to work with people who are successful in their area of interest. Now each one can get work experience on their CV.  The same goes for when the career seeker is already working and wants to gain more skills. They must do their own work quickly, come to an agreement with their supervisor and do work with the person they want to learn from.  You have already covered a bit on workplace experience in PCAR04Y, Unit 3.3, so you understand why workplace experience is so important.

The working person that the career seeker wants to learn from does not always know what is expected of them or they are not in the possession of mentoring skills.  You will be provided with some guidelines on writing a short letter that will help the working person in this regard.  Read about this in the next section.

Your goal is to tutor the career seeker on how to be useful in order to learn and gain experience. The career seeker will become useful by experiencing observing, reflecting and then practicing through doing, under tutelage of the working person.  If you are at all unsure what volunteering, reflecting and observing entails please use google.com and wikipedia.org for further information. There is a brief summary in Section 2.3.

Most people who go shadowing can be paid when they do a good job and the company decides to pay for work done. Remind the career seekers to inform their supervisors and ask advice from people around them. It will increase the learning experience and also increase the chances of them getting paid. Many should gain employment as part of Learnerships since the people at the company know the person and propose or support their application.  We will discuss Learnerships in Section 2.4.

PCAR053, Unit 2, Activity 1

  1. Look at the following concepts on the Internet:
  2. A total high school program as on Wikipedia
  3. Extern-ship (or a experiential learning activity) There are externships examples for most careers on the web. In an externship, you go to work with people, to gain work skills in an informal way.
  4. Search the web for suitable examples for your area or the specific career seeker.
  5. Give two examples on your Career library!
  6. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries on your Blog.
  7. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

The web gives access to many of these examples. The originators of these programs may even communicate directly with you on your request. Expand your access to resources by joining these web sites where they allow you to do so.

Click on the following link to view a brief story of another career seeker.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7iIsb67-j7s Listen to Linky, a Siwelane-Community Activist. She became involved in a skills development project that helped her and her daughter on their career paths.

2.2 The job-shadowing contract

We offer some sample clauses to get the career seekers and career growers going with regards to requesting work access.

  • I am in a career access and growth program. The jobs and the economy grow as more people get productive. I would like to join the productive people like you and help grow my family, community, and country.
  • I want to shadow you at work to gain work experience.
  • I commit to help where I can and do as I am told.
  • I understand that this is not employment or an interview in any way.
  • I am exchanging value with you and can do other tasks for you in exchange for observing and learning.
  • I commit to share with others directly and on the web where practical what and how I learned. It grows the online career library for the whole country.
  • Would you please help me to reflect what I observed to ensure that I grasp and understand what I learn?
  • I am a mentee who drives my learning processes. As mentor, you should benefit from the exchange since I learn from you. I compensate you by the value exchange method. We do it everyday at home.
  • Inform supervisors and Human resources that you are shadowing.

PCAR053, Unit 2, Activity 2

  1. Discuss the above clauses of a possible contract with career seekers and career growers. Ensure they can explain their objectives with confidence.
  2. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries on your Blog.
  3. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

A short letter to the working person will help him/her and the career seeker or grower. Work these clauses into the letter.  This will serve as a possible contract.  Clear communications and setting out of rules will prevent the person being shadowed from feeling threatened or stolen from. Both parties know why they are there and both know their place. This decreases the room for misunderstanding and disappointment.

2.3 Observation, reflection and practice

Ask the career seeker to remember their exploration and observations from their own personality traits in PCAR01V Unit 2 and careers in PCAR01V Unit 6.  Ask them to apply the same process of exploration and observation during job shadowing.  Help the career seekers / growers to continue exploring and discovering their strengths and weaknesses.  The job shadowing is an ideal opportunity for that. See Tutorial letter PCAR01V/103/2008

Observe how people in the workplace do their work, and simply mimic them to practice the same skills.  This way you will learn new skills very fast.

2.4 Learnerships

Go to SAQA’s website for a definition of and information on Learnerships.

SAQA’s mission is to ensure the development and implementation of a National Qualifications Framework (NQF) which contributes to the full development of each learner and to the social and economic development of the nation at large. The learnership campaign is therefore one of the processes that will ensure that SAQA’s commitment is seen to be a vital component of learnerships now and in the future.

Learnerships are defined as the new professional and vocational education and training programmes. They combine theory and practice and culminate in a qualification that is registered on the NQF. A person who successfully completes a learnership will have a qualification that signals occupational competence and which is recognised throughout the country.

To read more on SAQA’s website go to the “focus area” drop down menu and click on learnerships.

Also, read all about learnerships on the skills portal.

Scroll down to the table called: Learnerships: The A to Z. The following topics are covered there:
What is a learnership?
What makes a learnership different?
What are the principles of learnerships?
How is a learnership program developed?
How are learnerships implemented?
How are learnerships financed?
How are learnerships delivered?
How are learnerships assessed?
A to Z courtesy of CPT Learnership Development

Find any learnership on The Skills Portal’s online learnerships database.

You will notice that a learnership can only be done through a specific SETA.  And all of the SETA’s has their way of doing a learnership.  That is why you must contact the specific SETA applicable to your career seeker, who is interested in a learnership.  For example, if your career seeker is interested in becoming a food technologist, they will find a suitable learnership with the Foodbev setaThe service seta also has a very good explanation on learnerships.

To find all the SETA’s, go back to http://www.saqa.org.za/ and click on the “Accredited Education & Training Quality Assurance bodies” button on the left of the screen.  You will now find all the names of the SETA’s and links to their websites.

PCAR053, Unit 2, Activity 3

  1. Study the above websites on learnerships.  Take one of your career seekers and see if you can find a learnership for that person.
  2. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries on your Blog.
  3. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

Try staying up to date with news about skills development and the service seta’s on The Skills Portal home page.  The more you read about this topic the easier it will become to understand.  The day that you need to help a career seeker with learnerships, you can go and speak to the specific SETA.  They will give you good guidelines on what to do and where to go!  Remember, that is what they are there for, so feel free to make use of that service!

2.6 Conclusion

In this unit, you have learnt how the career seeker can benefit from doing some form of job shadowing.  By just observing experts in the workplace, mimicking them and practicing what you see, you can learn a lot.  Motivate your career seeker to keep on moving and speaking to experts.  This is the only way they will find their passion and find resources to live their passion.

We congratulate you on moving on to the next unit where you share your experiences with career seekers and interested community members, in the workshop.  Remember, as in the previous assignment (of Module 4), the workshop contact will start growing your career guidance network and future business.

Key questions

  • What do parents, family and friends mean to the career seeker?
  • How do you apply the knowledge that you have gained about yourself?
  • How would you remove limitations to communicating and finding career opportunities?

2.1 INTRODUCTION

This module has two focal points.  It looks at the use of knowledge that you have gained about yourself (after working through Modules 1 & 2); and it looks at how to involve and inform parents and family. Up to this point you have gained some insight into personality, aptitude, abilities, interests, values and careers in general.  It is now important to apply the knowledge about these concepts to inform parents, family, and friends, to say thank you (do you remember how this was explained in PCAR03X: Unit 1?) and to attract resources to implement your work access campaign. Inform them regarding your personality, your abilities and values and what possible careers will suit you best. Remember that this is the same process your career seeker clients will follow. It is important for you to go through the same process to be able to help and guide your future clients effectively.

2.2 WHAT DO PARENTS, FAMILY AND FRIENDS MEAN TO CAREER SEEKERS?

PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 1

  1. Open http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venn_diagram and http://www.logictutorial.com/ and study the Venn diagram again.  Also, refer back to Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/103/2007.
  2. You have already explored your interests, values, aptitude, and abilities.  Now you need to enter this into the Venn diagram to see how it overlaps and determines your passions.  Use the Venn diagram from Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/103/2007 and discover what it is that you have not yet shared with your parents, family and friends. Use the structured results from your exercises in Module 1 and preparation for communication in Module 2 and share what you have discovered.
  3. You will use the words which you discovered by completing Module 1 (use the adjectives from the Johari window from PCAR01V/103/2007 as a guideline) to enter in to the Venn diagram.  Use the Venn diagram below as a structure and let others complete it with you.  Discuss the results with parents, family and friends.
  4. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  5. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments

Feedback:

You will find that after completing the Venn diagram on your aptitude, personality, interest and values, you will be able to communicate your own personal qualities to your parents, family and friends more easily.

PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 2

  1. What do you think is the value of knowing yourself with regard to your personality, aptitude, interest and values, for a career choice?   Briefly write down five points about the importance of knowing yourself.
  2. Discuss your ideas about knowledge of yourself as a basis for a responsible career choice with your study colleagues, family or friends.
  3. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  4. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

Do you remember that choosing a career implies that you are going to be active in a certain career field for at least eight hours per day?  Will you be able to do the work that is expected of you and will you find it interesting enough to spend all that time at it? Do you have the necessary ability to use your talents or do you need training to become competent?

You must remember that the way that you see yourself should determine your career choice.  However, in the next section, attention will be given to the way that your parents, friends or family see you regarding your personality, aptitude, interest and values. Their opinion regarding your personal qualities will give you greater insight into yourself.

2.3 INVOLVEMENT OF PARENTS, FAMILY AND FRIENDS

You will gain access to social networks and support by informing the important people in your life about your work preferences and opportunities. The career seeker will, however, require firm support during these change processes.[1] You as career guidance practitioner should transfer your knowledge and skills of the processes involved in informing and support to your career seeker.

Keep in mind that parents, family and friends:

  • give verbal input regarding the different careers which you might be considering, and
  • unconsciously model their specific careers to you and your community.  Therefore, be careful not to explore too many other career opportunities and miss the obvious career choices around you!

PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 3

  1. Study the Johari window again.  Also, refer back to tutorial letter PCAR01V/103/2007.
  2. Use the Johari window from PCAR01V/103/2007 and discover what it is that you have not yet shared with your parents, family or friends. Use the structured results from your exercises in Module 1 in preparation for communication in Module 2 and share what you have discovered.  As author, I would like to thank Plug, Meyer, Louw and Gouws (1991:168) for their specific applications of the Johari window.
  3. Make a page with the four quadrants. Use the Johari window, (Figure 3.2 below) as an example) and let others complete it with you.
  4. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  5. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.
  6. This is an example of a career related use of the Johari window as described by Gouws and Kruger (1994:164). Please complete it as part of PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 3.

Figure 3.2 The Johari window applied to a career seeker

ARENA

Personality ……………………………………………..

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Aptitude ………………………………………………….

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Interest …………………………………………………..

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Values ……………………………………………………

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BLIND SPOT

Personality ……………………………………………..

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Aptitude ………………………………………………….

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Interest …………………………………………………..

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Values ……………………………………………………

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FAÇADE

Personality ……………………………………………..

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Aptitude ………………………………………………….

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Interest …………………………………………………..

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Values ……………………………………………………

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UNKNOWN

Feedback:

Did you learn anything new about yourself by completing the Johari window?  You can use these processes with family, friends, family and local leaders in the workplace. As a result the people around you will get to know you and during your discussion with them, you will get to know them to a certain extent. Getting exposure to each other and your willingness to share your intrapersonal qualities with them will contribute to reducing possible prejudice and bias and the meeting might even provide a working environment that might be available to you in the future. Meeting each other, thanking them for the opportunity for discussion and sharing information about yourself make for a safe growing experience for all.

2.4 THE NATURE OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT

Unlike urban youths, young people in rural and remote areas generally have to leave home to attend secondary school. They most certainly have to go to urban centres to do any type of training, which can put them on a career path.  Children from the rural areas do not have the same background knowledge on career and study possibilities as their urban friends due to limited exposure to the few careers that their community members have. Obviously a smaller variety of job opportunities is available to them in their rural areas.   Most career-related information and resources are located in distant centres which are inaccessible to most rural families.  Professionals, who have the required career-related knowledge, are concentrated in larger urban settings (Jeffery, Lehr, Hache & Campbell 1992:240-241).

Jeffery et al. (1992:241) found from their research in rural parts that the major problems faced by rural parents were lack of career-related information and lack of knowledge on how to obtain available information.  They came to the conclusion that parents were not adequately equipped to assist their children in making job choices, e.g. in terms of information about the range of jobs available and in understanding what certain jobs entail.

Jeffery et al.  (1992:246-248) did research in Canada and listed a number of hypotheses (expectations) to be verified in interviews with parents in rural areas.  The list was split into two groups: family, community and cultural reviews and job, career and labour-related concerns.

It would be interesting to note the outcomes of similar research under South African circumstances!

Read carefully through the list of hypotheses/expectations.  What would you predict the outcome of research in South Africa to be? For interest’s sake indicate your view in the true or false column provided.
Family, community and cultural concerns TRUE FALSE
1           Problems result from very close bonding of the young person to parents, peers, home and community.

2          Widely held beliefs that home communities are the best or only place to be (ethnocentrism).

3          Fears held by young persons and perhaps parents that young people are unable to compete successfully elsewhere.

4          Situations where the young person is socialised into non-creative solutions/non-provocative stances when it comes to the pursuit of careers.

5          Many members of the community (the potential role models for both the parents and the youth) demonstrate that they have adapted successfully to what is, in many respects, a difficult local situation.  In other words, there are many role models who are “surviving” as unemployed people.

6          Many gender-related issues and problems.

7          Problems resulting from early pregnancies.

8          Widely held views that it is easier and cheaper to stay at or near home.

9          Inter-generational patterns of welfare or unemployment insurance dependency.

10         Common parental strategies, which encourage the young person to return home when there is stress.

11         A limited number of role models in communities capable of demonstrating good career decision-making skills.

12         Tendencies for young people (who leave the home community for career purposes) to go primarily to those settings where there already is a support network rather than to unfamiliar communities.

13         Greater problems for youths associated with leaving the old situation, than with their ability to cope with a new situation.

14         People have problems because of substance abuse.

Jobs, career and labour market information concerns TRUE FALSE
1           An absence of jobs available in the area.

2          An absence of information on places (local or distant) where one might get work.

3          A limited amount of knowledge about the wide range of career options that exist.

4          Limited parental and youth knowledge about how to identify persons or services that can supply them with or lead them to information.

5          A lack of parental and youth awareness that there are often support services in a new community from which they might seek help (i.e. churches and social clubs).

6          An extensive misinformation about what it is like in other centres.

7          A relative absence of “mentors” or persons who encourage or challenge youth to search more widely.

8         A relative absence of parents with strategies for finding work.

2.5 REMOVING LIMITATIONS TO COMMUNICATION

An analysis of the data collected in Canada by Jeffery et al (1992:249) supported many of the hypotheses in the above table. This meant that their expectations were well founded.

However, it was found that parents expected and supported youth to leave the community.  Furthermore, no support was found for the hypothesised notion that parents encourage their children to return home if confronted with stressful situations when away.   Parents also knew that career identification and problems existed and tried hard to identify solutions.

Parents also expressed the view that because of their lack of education, they did not see themselves as good role models for their children.  They also felt that they lacked adequate experience and knowledge to offer sound educational advice.

If the same problems regarding career guidance by rural parents occurred in South Africa, what assistance could be given to them to help them to prepare themselves to guide their children in a career choice? Remember, you intend to guide people in your community regarding their choice of careers!

Feedback:

I would like to make a few suggestions for you to add to the ideas which you might have. Is it possible to bring rural career seekers closer to the same processes that successful workplace families already have? This could be done by exposing them to successful and advantaged people.  How is this done? You could arrange to bridge the difference between them and successful workers by accessing successful work people through civil and civic organizations. You could help the rural career seekers to communicate their knowledge and interests to their parents, family and community members. Not only does this give them the opportunity to practise speaking about themselves, but it will prevent them from isolating themselves from the community. Instead they will raise the knowledge and awareness of the jobs to which they have been exposed within the community as a whole.

You also need to assist parents to assist young people during the transition from home to work.  Parents and leaders should be briefed during the processes to obtain and participate in the information exchange on careers and jobs.  Under your guidance, community leaders could assist parents to form groups for discussion about careers and educational activities. The following information is important and should be included in the communication:

  • finding career information
  • coping with the problems of registration, loans, insurance, etc.
  • helping children to leave home
  • coping with loneliness and relocation problems
  • helping young people anticipate and deal with their new freedom
  • helping young people maintain a pride in their roots
  • helping young people cope with fears of being “different”
  • communicating with and staying in contact when a young person is away

Remember that extensive web resources exist and the leaders’ involvement makes the choices safer.

2.6 SUMMARY

Successful families have structures in place which remove barriers to communication with their children. A circle of families can offer many possible opportunities to the children of their friends. Access and knowledge are shared freely for the sole purpose of adding value to young people and offering them opportunities in life.  In rural areas this is not possible. The only option is thus to increase knowledge about career opportunities by creating a partnership between the youth and the older community. Everyone learns and everyone grows and this will continue to benefit the community for generations to come.

It is therefore important for you as career guide to practise the process of informing the people around you about your own personal qualities (your own Johari window) and about the career opportunities which you can offer them.  You need to help the career seeker use the same strategies as successfully as you have done to avoid their isolation and to promote knowledge distribution among the people in the community.


[1] The change process refers to the transition from a current state to a desired state.  Explore this website about managing the change process.