Venn Diagram

Key questions

  • What do parents, family and friends mean to the career seeker?
  • How do you apply the knowledge that you have gained about yourself?
  • How would you remove limitations to communicating and finding career opportunities?

2.1 INTRODUCTION

This module has two focal points.  It looks at the use of knowledge that you have gained about yourself (after working through Modules 1 & 2); and it looks at how to involve and inform parents and family. Up to this point you have gained some insight into personality, aptitude, abilities, interests, values and careers in general.  It is now important to apply the knowledge about these concepts to inform parents, family, and friends, to say thank you (do you remember how this was explained in PCAR03X: Unit 1?) and to attract resources to implement your work access campaign. Inform them regarding your personality, your abilities and values and what possible careers will suit you best. Remember that this is the same process your career seeker clients will follow. It is important for you to go through the same process to be able to help and guide your future clients effectively.

2.2 WHAT DO PARENTS, FAMILY AND FRIENDS MEAN TO CAREER SEEKERS?

PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 1

  1. Open http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venn_diagram and http://www.logictutorial.com/ and study the Venn diagram again.  Also, refer back to Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/103/2007.
  2. You have already explored your interests, values, aptitude, and abilities.  Now you need to enter this into the Venn diagram to see how it overlaps and determines your passions.  Use the Venn diagram from Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/103/2007 and discover what it is that you have not yet shared with your parents, family and friends. Use the structured results from your exercises in Module 1 and preparation for communication in Module 2 and share what you have discovered.
  3. You will use the words which you discovered by completing Module 1 (use the adjectives from the Johari window from PCAR01V/103/2007 as a guideline) to enter in to the Venn diagram.  Use the Venn diagram below as a structure and let others complete it with you.  Discuss the results with parents, family and friends.
  4. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  5. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments

Feedback:

You will find that after completing the Venn diagram on your aptitude, personality, interest and values, you will be able to communicate your own personal qualities to your parents, family and friends more easily.

PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 2

  1. What do you think is the value of knowing yourself with regard to your personality, aptitude, interest and values, for a career choice?   Briefly write down five points about the importance of knowing yourself.
  2. Discuss your ideas about knowledge of yourself as a basis for a responsible career choice with your study colleagues, family or friends.
  3. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  4. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

Do you remember that choosing a career implies that you are going to be active in a certain career field for at least eight hours per day?  Will you be able to do the work that is expected of you and will you find it interesting enough to spend all that time at it? Do you have the necessary ability to use your talents or do you need training to become competent?

You must remember that the way that you see yourself should determine your career choice.  However, in the next section, attention will be given to the way that your parents, friends or family see you regarding your personality, aptitude, interest and values. Their opinion regarding your personal qualities will give you greater insight into yourself.

2.3 INVOLVEMENT OF PARENTS, FAMILY AND FRIENDS

You will gain access to social networks and support by informing the important people in your life about your work preferences and opportunities. The career seeker will, however, require firm support during these change processes.[1] You as career guidance practitioner should transfer your knowledge and skills of the processes involved in informing and support to your career seeker.

Keep in mind that parents, family and friends:

  • give verbal input regarding the different careers which you might be considering, and
  • unconsciously model their specific careers to you and your community.  Therefore, be careful not to explore too many other career opportunities and miss the obvious career choices around you!

PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 3

  1. Study the Johari window again.  Also, refer back to tutorial letter PCAR01V/103/2007.
  2. Use the Johari window from PCAR01V/103/2007 and discover what it is that you have not yet shared with your parents, family or friends. Use the structured results from your exercises in Module 1 in preparation for communication in Module 2 and share what you have discovered.  As author, I would like to thank Plug, Meyer, Louw and Gouws (1991:168) for their specific applications of the Johari window.
  3. Make a page with the four quadrants. Use the Johari window, (Figure 3.2 below) as an example) and let others complete it with you.
  4. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  5. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.
  6. This is an example of a career related use of the Johari window as described by Gouws and Kruger (1994:164). Please complete it as part of PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 3.

Figure 3.2 The Johari window applied to a career seeker

ARENA

Personality ……………………………………………..

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Aptitude ………………………………………………….

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Interest …………………………………………………..

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Values ……………………………………………………

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BLIND SPOT

Personality ……………………………………………..

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Aptitude ………………………………………………….

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Interest …………………………………………………..

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Values ……………………………………………………

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FAÇADE

Personality ……………………………………………..

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Aptitude ………………………………………………….

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Interest …………………………………………………..

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Values ……………………………………………………

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UNKNOWN

Feedback:

Did you learn anything new about yourself by completing the Johari window?  You can use these processes with family, friends, family and local leaders in the workplace. As a result the people around you will get to know you and during your discussion with them, you will get to know them to a certain extent. Getting exposure to each other and your willingness to share your intrapersonal qualities with them will contribute to reducing possible prejudice and bias and the meeting might even provide a working environment that might be available to you in the future. Meeting each other, thanking them for the opportunity for discussion and sharing information about yourself make for a safe growing experience for all.

2.4 THE NATURE OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT

Unlike urban youths, young people in rural and remote areas generally have to leave home to attend secondary school. They most certainly have to go to urban centres to do any type of training, which can put them on a career path.  Children from the rural areas do not have the same background knowledge on career and study possibilities as their urban friends due to limited exposure to the few careers that their community members have. Obviously a smaller variety of job opportunities is available to them in their rural areas.   Most career-related information and resources are located in distant centres which are inaccessible to most rural families.  Professionals, who have the required career-related knowledge, are concentrated in larger urban settings (Jeffery, Lehr, Hache & Campbell 1992:240-241).

Jeffery et al. (1992:241) found from their research in rural parts that the major problems faced by rural parents were lack of career-related information and lack of knowledge on how to obtain available information.  They came to the conclusion that parents were not adequately equipped to assist their children in making job choices, e.g. in terms of information about the range of jobs available and in understanding what certain jobs entail.

Jeffery et al.  (1992:246-248) did research in Canada and listed a number of hypotheses (expectations) to be verified in interviews with parents in rural areas.  The list was split into two groups: family, community and cultural reviews and job, career and labour-related concerns.

It would be interesting to note the outcomes of similar research under South African circumstances!

Read carefully through the list of hypotheses/expectations.  What would you predict the outcome of research in South Africa to be? For interest’s sake indicate your view in the true or false column provided.
Family, community and cultural concerns TRUE FALSE
1           Problems result from very close bonding of the young person to parents, peers, home and community.

2          Widely held beliefs that home communities are the best or only place to be (ethnocentrism).

3          Fears held by young persons and perhaps parents that young people are unable to compete successfully elsewhere.

4          Situations where the young person is socialised into non-creative solutions/non-provocative stances when it comes to the pursuit of careers.

5          Many members of the community (the potential role models for both the parents and the youth) demonstrate that they have adapted successfully to what is, in many respects, a difficult local situation.  In other words, there are many role models who are “surviving” as unemployed people.

6          Many gender-related issues and problems.

7          Problems resulting from early pregnancies.

8          Widely held views that it is easier and cheaper to stay at or near home.

9          Inter-generational patterns of welfare or unemployment insurance dependency.

10         Common parental strategies, which encourage the young person to return home when there is stress.

11         A limited number of role models in communities capable of demonstrating good career decision-making skills.

12         Tendencies for young people (who leave the home community for career purposes) to go primarily to those settings where there already is a support network rather than to unfamiliar communities.

13         Greater problems for youths associated with leaving the old situation, than with their ability to cope with a new situation.

14         People have problems because of substance abuse.

Jobs, career and labour market information concerns TRUE FALSE
1           An absence of jobs available in the area.

2          An absence of information on places (local or distant) where one might get work.

3          A limited amount of knowledge about the wide range of career options that exist.

4          Limited parental and youth knowledge about how to identify persons or services that can supply them with or lead them to information.

5          A lack of parental and youth awareness that there are often support services in a new community from which they might seek help (i.e. churches and social clubs).

6          An extensive misinformation about what it is like in other centres.

7          A relative absence of “mentors” or persons who encourage or challenge youth to search more widely.

8         A relative absence of parents with strategies for finding work.

2.5 REMOVING LIMITATIONS TO COMMUNICATION

An analysis of the data collected in Canada by Jeffery et al (1992:249) supported many of the hypotheses in the above table. This meant that their expectations were well founded.

However, it was found that parents expected and supported youth to leave the community.  Furthermore, no support was found for the hypothesised notion that parents encourage their children to return home if confronted with stressful situations when away.   Parents also knew that career identification and problems existed and tried hard to identify solutions.

Parents also expressed the view that because of their lack of education, they did not see themselves as good role models for their children.  They also felt that they lacked adequate experience and knowledge to offer sound educational advice.

If the same problems regarding career guidance by rural parents occurred in South Africa, what assistance could be given to them to help them to prepare themselves to guide their children in a career choice? Remember, you intend to guide people in your community regarding their choice of careers!

Feedback:

I would like to make a few suggestions for you to add to the ideas which you might have. Is it possible to bring rural career seekers closer to the same processes that successful workplace families already have? This could be done by exposing them to successful and advantaged people.  How is this done? You could arrange to bridge the difference between them and successful workers by accessing successful work people through civil and civic organizations. You could help the rural career seekers to communicate their knowledge and interests to their parents, family and community members. Not only does this give them the opportunity to practise speaking about themselves, but it will prevent them from isolating themselves from the community. Instead they will raise the knowledge and awareness of the jobs to which they have been exposed within the community as a whole.

You also need to assist parents to assist young people during the transition from home to work.  Parents and leaders should be briefed during the processes to obtain and participate in the information exchange on careers and jobs.  Under your guidance, community leaders could assist parents to form groups for discussion about careers and educational activities. The following information is important and should be included in the communication:

  • finding career information
  • coping with the problems of registration, loans, insurance, etc.
  • helping children to leave home
  • coping with loneliness and relocation problems
  • helping young people anticipate and deal with their new freedom
  • helping young people maintain a pride in their roots
  • helping young people cope with fears of being “different”
  • communicating with and staying in contact when a young person is away

Remember that extensive web resources exist and the leaders’ involvement makes the choices safer.

2.6 SUMMARY

Successful families have structures in place which remove barriers to communication with their children. A circle of families can offer many possible opportunities to the children of their friends. Access and knowledge are shared freely for the sole purpose of adding value to young people and offering them opportunities in life.  In rural areas this is not possible. The only option is thus to increase knowledge about career opportunities by creating a partnership between the youth and the older community. Everyone learns and everyone grows and this will continue to benefit the community for generations to come.

It is therefore important for you as career guide to practise the process of informing the people around you about your own personal qualities (your own Johari window) and about the career opportunities which you can offer them.  You need to help the career seeker use the same strategies as successfully as you have done to avoid their isolation and to promote knowledge distribution among the people in the community.


[1] The change process refers to the transition from a current state to a desired state.  Explore this website about managing the change process.

Maximize your value contribution to the customer
Chapter 3
p.2
The idea of an “overlap” of interests has been mentioned several times. What does it all mean, and where do I fit into this concept?
At the heart of any business there is a tri-partite alliance between the individual, the company and the customer. The contribution you make lies in the area of overlap – Contribution Zone – of interests of the three role players. Your contribution is known as your Economic Value Added (EVA , for short).
I will explain this step-by-step. Let’s start by illustrating this concept in a diagram.
Let’s explore the concept of “Growing Contribution” and capacity which is the key to understanding the VENN diagram above.
As you grow your skills by following the Walk & Talk process, you are able to contribute to the effectiveness of the company as well as the manner in which the company addresses its customers’ needs.
As your experience, skills and knowledge grow, so do the areas of overlap (the Contribution Zone) between yourself and the company on the one hand; and between yourself and the customer on the other. Growth in contribution is directly linked to the growth in the added value the customer receives from doing business with the company, and is known as Economic Value Added (EVA).
In other words, as the area of overlap (EVA) grows, the“alignment” between yourself, the company and the customer increases.
This progression in alignment results in growth of the company through increased products and services as well as effective business processes which optimally address the needs and expectations of the customer. The progression of alignment depends exclusively on the growth of the individuals within the company, and the contribution they make to the company’s ability to effectively address the needs and expectations of the customer.
By understanding your customer well, you will be able to identify opportunities to develop new areas of customer needs and to increase the value the customer receives.
This will enable you to determine the growth of the company within your chosen customer base, and to increase the value-added to the company, which in turn, results in wealth for the customer the company and the individual.
Align yourself with your company and customer needs in order to maximize your contribution and create wealth for yourself, the customer and the company.

Maximize your value contribution to the customer

Chapter 3 p.2

w&t_question

I Ask

The idea of an “overlap” of interests has been mentioned several times. What does it all mean, and where do I fit into this concept?

w&t_exclamation

I Answer

At the heart of any business there is a tri-partite alliance between the individual, the company and the customer. The contribution you make lies in the area of overlap – Contribution Zone – of interests of the three role players. Your contribution is known as your Economic Value Add (EVA , for short).

I will explain this step-by-step. Let’s start by illustrating this concept in a diagram.

w&t_ch3_b_venn

Let’s explore the concept of “Growing Contribution” and capacity which is the key to understanding the VENN diagram above.

As you grow your skills by following the Walk & Talk process, you are able to contribute to the effectiveness of the company as well as the manner in which the company addresses its customers’ needs.

As your experience, skills and knowledge grow, so do the areas of overlap (the Contribution Zone) between yourself and the company on the one hand; and between yourself and the customer on the other. Growth in contribution is directly linked to the growth in the added value the customer receives from doing business with the company, and is known as Economic Value Add (EVA).

In other words, as the area of overlap (EVA) grows, the“alignment” between yourself, the company and the customer increases.

w&t_binoculars

I Explain

This progression in alignment results in growth of the company through increased products and services as well as effective business processes which optimally address the needs and expectations of the customer. The progression of alignment depends exclusively on the growth of the individuals within the company and the contribution they make to the company’s ability to effectively address the needs and expectations of the customer.

By understanding your customer well, you will be able to identify opportunities to develop new areas of customer needs and to increase the value the customer receives.

This will enable you to determine the growth of the company within your chosen customer base and to increase the value-added to the company, which in turn, results in wealth for the customer, the company and the individual.

w&t_elephant

I Advise

Align yourself with your company and customer needs in order to maximize your contribution and create wealth for yourself, the customer and the company.