Career Seekers

Key questions

  • Why is a job-shadowing contract necessary?
  • What is in a job-shadowing contract?
  • How do you become useful in the workplace?
  • What is a Learnership?

2.1 Introduction

As career guide, you must show prospective job seekers how they can go to work with people who are successful in their area of interest. Now each one can get work experience on their CV.  The same goes for when the career seeker is already working and wants to gain more skills. They must do their own work quickly, come to an agreement with their supervisor and do work with the person they want to learn from.  You have already covered a bit on workplace experience in PCAR04Y, Unit 3.3, so you understand why workplace experience is so important.

The working person that the career seeker wants to learn from does not always know what is expected of them or they are not in the possession of mentoring skills.  You will be provided with some guidelines on writing a short letter that will help the working person in this regard.  Read about this in the next section.

Your goal is to tutor the career seeker on how to be useful in order to learn and gain experience. The career seeker will become useful by experiencing observing, reflecting and then practicing through doing, under tutelage of the working person.  If you are at all unsure what volunteering, reflecting and observing entails please use and for further information. There is a brief summary in Section 2.3.

Most people who go shadowing can be paid when they do a good job and the company decides to pay for work done. Remind the career seekers to inform their supervisors and ask advice from people around them. It will increase the learning experience and also increase the chances of them getting paid. Many should gain employment as part of Learnerships since the people at the company know the person and propose or support their application.  We will discuss Learnerships in Section 2.4.

PCAR053, Unit 2, Activity 1

  1. Look at the following concepts on the Internet:
  2. A total high school program as on Wikipedia
  3. Extern-ship (or a experiential learning activity) There are externships examples for most careers on the web. In an externship, you go to work with people, to gain work skills in an informal way.
  4. Search the web for suitable examples for your area or the specific career seeker.
  5. Give two examples on your Career library!
  6. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries on your Blog.
  7. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.


The web gives access to many of these examples. The originators of these programs may even communicate directly with you on your request. Expand your access to resources by joining these web sites where they allow you to do so.

Click on the following link to view a brief story of another career seeker. Listen to Linky, a Siwelane-Community Activist. She became involved in a skills development project that helped her and her daughter on their career paths.

2.2 The job-shadowing contract

We offer some sample clauses to get the career seekers and career growers going with regards to requesting work access.

  • I am in a career access and growth program. The jobs and the economy grow as more people get productive. I would like to join the productive people like you and help grow my family, community, and country.
  • I want to shadow you at work to gain work experience.
  • I commit to help where I can and do as I am told.
  • I understand that this is not employment or an interview in any way.
  • I am exchanging value with you and can do other tasks for you in exchange for observing and learning.
  • I commit to share with others directly and on the web where practical what and how I learned. It grows the online career library for the whole country.
  • Would you please help me to reflect what I observed to ensure that I grasp and understand what I learn?
  • I am a mentee who drives my learning processes. As mentor, you should benefit from the exchange since I learn from you. I compensate you by the value exchange method. We do it everyday at home.
  • Inform supervisors and Human resources that you are shadowing.

PCAR053, Unit 2, Activity 2

  1. Discuss the above clauses of a possible contract with career seekers and career growers. Ensure they can explain their objectives with confidence.
  2. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries on your Blog.
  3. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.


A short letter to the working person will help him/her and the career seeker or grower. Work these clauses into the letter.  This will serve as a possible contract.  Clear communications and setting out of rules will prevent the person being shadowed from feeling threatened or stolen from. Both parties know why they are there and both know their place. This decreases the room for misunderstanding and disappointment.

2.3 Observation, reflection and practice

Ask the career seeker to remember their exploration and observations from their own personality traits in PCAR01V Unit 2 and careers in PCAR01V Unit 6.  Ask them to apply the same process of exploration and observation during job shadowing.  Help the career seekers / growers to continue exploring and discovering their strengths and weaknesses.  The job shadowing is an ideal opportunity for that. See Tutorial letter PCAR01V/103/2008

Observe how people in the workplace do their work, and simply mimic them to practice the same skills.  This way you will learn new skills very fast.

2.4 Learnerships

Go to SAQA’s website for a definition of and information on Learnerships.

SAQA’s mission is to ensure the development and implementation of a National Qualifications Framework (NQF) which contributes to the full development of each learner and to the social and economic development of the nation at large. The learnership campaign is therefore one of the processes that will ensure that SAQA’s commitment is seen to be a vital component of learnerships now and in the future.

Learnerships are defined as the new professional and vocational education and training programmes. They combine theory and practice and culminate in a qualification that is registered on the NQF. A person who successfully completes a learnership will have a qualification that signals occupational competence and which is recognised throughout the country.

To read more on SAQA’s website go to the “focus area” drop down menu and click on learnerships.

Also, read all about learnerships on the skills portal.

Scroll down to the table called: Learnerships: The A to Z. The following topics are covered there:
What is a learnership?
What makes a learnership different?
What are the principles of learnerships?
How is a learnership program developed?
How are learnerships implemented?
How are learnerships financed?
How are learnerships delivered?
How are learnerships assessed?
A to Z courtesy of CPT Learnership Development

Find any learnership on The Skills Portal’s online learnerships database.

You will notice that a learnership can only be done through a specific SETA.  And all of the SETA’s has their way of doing a learnership.  That is why you must contact the specific SETA applicable to your career seeker, who is interested in a learnership.  For example, if your career seeker is interested in becoming a food technologist, they will find a suitable learnership with the Foodbev setaThe service seta also has a very good explanation on learnerships.

To find all the SETA’s, go back to and click on the “Accredited Education & Training Quality Assurance bodies” button on the left of the screen.  You will now find all the names of the SETA’s and links to their websites.

PCAR053, Unit 2, Activity 3

  1. Study the above websites on learnerships.  Take one of your career seekers and see if you can find a learnership for that person.
  2. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries on your Blog.
  3. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.


Try staying up to date with news about skills development and the service seta’s on The Skills Portal home page.  The more you read about this topic the easier it will become to understand.  The day that you need to help a career seeker with learnerships, you can go and speak to the specific SETA.  They will give you good guidelines on what to do and where to go!  Remember, that is what they are there for, so feel free to make use of that service!

2.6 Conclusion

In this unit, you have learnt how the career seeker can benefit from doing some form of job shadowing.  By just observing experts in the workplace, mimicking them and practicing what you see, you can learn a lot.  Motivate your career seeker to keep on moving and speaking to experts.  This is the only way they will find their passion and find resources to live their passion.

We congratulate you on moving on to the next unit where you share your experiences with career seekers and interested community members, in the workshop.  Remember, as in the previous assignment (of Module 4), the workshop contact will start growing your career guidance network and future business.

Key questions

  • Who are the people with the knowledge and resources?
  • How do you gain access to these sources of knowledge and resources?

3.1 Introduction

In Unit 2, you were provided with another tool (the careers library) for use in building and expanding as a career guidance practitioner. This unit lets you experience the processes used to access people with resources, existing infrastructures and relationships, which you can use to prepare for your presentations in the assignment (PCAR04Y: Unit 4) and the Workshops/Exhibitions in PCAR053.

3.2 People with knowledge and resources

Your on-line careers information library from the previous unit includes a heading named Relationships. You should keep an ordered list of relationships and resources you can access and utilise for clients and for yourself. Any client’s interest can be connected to associations and people locally who know people in these careers.  Simply ask people to connect you as explained in the social networking processes of PCAR01V/103.

3.2.1 National resources accessible in each municipality or metro

PCAR04Y, Unit 3, Activity 1

Here are a few links that can serve as examples of national resources that should be represented in your ward, municipality or metro.  The sites are self-explanatory.  Help your career seekers to mobilize and access the people with these resources.

Government resources

Your local province publishes information about initiatives and invites career seekers to participate.

Your local municipality

Your local business chambers, and member sites like, and the

Do you see how business-networking organizations are growing across the country and the world?

  1. Add links similar to these in your own region and explain briefly, why you chose them, and in what way they can help you.  If the web information does not exist yet, use the links as guidelines to find similar information and the people who are appointed to drive the initiatives.  Simply help them and allow them to help you.  They have access to the resources that you require to do your job.
  2. Find local email addresses of representatives of these resources in these websites: (You will repeat the exercise once you are familiar with it to access many other people with resources from organizations, institutions and corporations.)
  3. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book for the CV exercises and as part of your assignments.
  4. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference.


Access, support and use this infrastructure of resources and leaders. The resources belong to the community and the people in the organisations serve the community. Help them do the work that is expected of them!  Civil, civic and business organisations have people who want to help and are ready if only they can reach the people. These people need to rely on people like you to mobilise and organise the community for them to meet the right people, in groups, that share common interests.

3.2.2 Professional bodies

All of the following professional bodies have representatives within academic institutions who assist people in accessing jobs.  They will also be able to assist you as career guide to find and explore the route that someone needs to take if he/she wishes to enter a specific job in that industry.

  • Career guidance practitioners
  • Teacher associations
  • Nursing associations
  • Accounting boards
  • Legal boards
  • Tourism boards
  • Information and communication technology associations

PCAR04Y, Unit 3, Activity 2

  1. Choose one of the above associations, identify Careers within them, and show where you found people willing to share information with you (Whether it is their knowledge, experience, or network) and explain how you would use these connections when serving future clients.
  2. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book for the CV exercises and as part of your assignments.
  3. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference..


These careers can be researched through their respective associations, federations, institutes, societies, etc. They can be approached to obtain advice and information about potential career opportunities within their respective fields. If you did not find adequate information at an academic institution, such as Unisa, do not hesitate to engage in a more thorough research about the specific topic. The knowledge can only stand you in good stead in future.

3.2.3 Helping career seekers gain access to institutions of higher learning


Local organizations that you as career guide can approach are:

  • CHE (Council on Higher Education)
  • SAQA (South African Qualification Authority)

Home based or community based training:

Work place training:

Further education and training:

There are also international organizations where one can study.  However, they have very strict admission requirements.  It is relatively easy to find information on any university or course by conducting a search on

PCAR04Y, Unit 3, Activity 3

  1. Choose a course of study required by a profession from the previous activity and find out what the admission requirements are, and how to apply for a bursary if available.  Choose one local university and one international one.  This is practice for assisting a client through the same process
  2. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareerBook as part of your assignments.
  3. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference..

3.2.4 Career centres on the web

There are many career centres on the web. You will find them when working with Human Resource departments within companies. These sites and centres hold information about the jobs in the career seeker’s field as well as where to find them. If you can add value to people with this knowledge by introducing them to competent and willing people, you might be able to negotiate the payment of a percentage payable by the company or a placement agency.


Career information and support for students at:

Career centre:

Help the career seekers find centers relevant to their chosen work in selected industries.  Examples for:

3.2.5 Educational magazines and newspapers

All the information contained in educational magazines and newspapers can be found on the Internet with a little bit of effort.  Add these sites to your library as sites to consult when helping someone match their skills to a job.

Help the career seeker to match his/her interests to a job.  Keep in mind that they are the only experts on themselves.  The better you catalog your sites and information, the more effectively you will assist them to find their current ideal career.

PCAR04Y, Unit 3, Activity 4

  1. Open the Google web browser site
  2. Take the chosen profession from Activity 3 and find two educational magazine and newspaper sites using Google.  Use all the search tools that you have become familiar with to make your search more efficient.  For example, use Wikipedia to look up what accounting is all about (you might even find some very useful links on there).  Use this knowledge in your Google search.
  3. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises and as part of your assignments.
  4. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference.


Try to let your career seekers do most of the search work.  They will probably recognise a useful site better that you can.  This is after all, their area of interest!

3.2.6 Companies/Corporations

Business entities want access to people for business and investment opportunities which will lead them to new and competent employees.  When your clients are ready and know where they want to become involved, you must use your skills to find the person a company or corporation that needs people with their specific credentials.  Then you must help them prepare a CV and arrange an appointment.

By now, you have practiced these skills extensively and now it is merely a matter of implementing them.  Remember previous activities and sites and list them in your on-line library for future use.  You can approach companies and corporations through business chambers to mobilize your career seekers.  You will do this in the assignment (Unit 4) of this module.

3.2.7 Embassies

Embassies have a lot of information about their country and their national universities. Their internal staff can also be helpful in finding jobs and identifying the skills and qualifications which their countries demand. Utilise your relationships with the local leaders (and business chambers) to make contact at an embassy. Instead of going directly to an embassy, you are making use of a trusted and reliable person/organisation and this will allow you access to further resources. Remember to take advantage of the people whose job it is to connect the community with the leaders and other resources.

Sometimes students want to know about overseas studies. Therefore, it is useful to keep information on overseas institutions. This information is freely available on the web on the homepage of each embassy. Make an appointment to see them in groups or invite them to your workshops.

Inform and invite embassies to your workshops as they have resources, both intellectual and financial, that they could provide you with.

3.3 Access to sources of information

In Section 3.2 you were presented with infrastructures and relationships that you will need to grow and help your career seekers.  This section helps you to prepare your presentation for gaining access to people with resources, existing infrastructures and relationships.

What follows is a guideline that you as career guide can follow to gain access to various sources of information.  Remember to establish and advertise yourself as on one of many career centres worldwide when making contact with job sites, associations and corporations.  Here is a tip on how to obtain access:

Workplace experience

Your goal is to access and mobilise people in your local business chambers who in turn must mobilise the local business community who they serve.  You want to provide your career seekers with the opportunity to gain workplace exposure and even arrange for first-hand experiences. Remember, once you have completed the career guidance process with your clients, they will be mobilised as career seekers.  This means that they have identified their passion, their talents, and skills and that their parents, family, friends and leaders are involved with them. The career seekers know their personal gaps that require additional training. Thus, the career seekers are engaged with programmes that will help them close the gaps and meet their future career goals.  They also know the gaps in the market which they can target and they have planned their strategies and tactics for access. Most businesses will gladly assist such people with workplace experience.

PCAR04Y, Unit 3, Activity 5

  1. What is workplace experience?  Examine the following websites about workplace experience.
  4. Follow this case study on work place experience.
  5. Guidelines on how to keep a work place experience log.
  6. How will these websites help your career seekers make the most of their workplace experience?  Compile a short checklist for your career seekers on what they should do during their workplace experience.
  7. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises and as part of your assignments.
  8. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference.

3.4 Conclusion

In this unit, you have learnt how you can access people with knowledge and resources by adding value to them while taking your client to new heights. In the assignment, you will use the skills you have acquired during the course to access resources and information in collaboration with people in existing organisations and institutions. These processes can be repeated and expanded. The only limits you will encounter are those that you impose on yourself. You have the tools and the ability to make a viable difference with definite intent.

We congratulate you on moving on to the final unit in PCAR04Y where you share your experiences with local committees and cement your relationships with activists and champions.  In the assignment, you will make contact with business chambers and committees to gain access to business opportunities and workplace experience.  More importantly, these contacts will start growing your career guidance network and future business.


The objective of Module 3 Unit 5 is to introduce the career guidance practitioner to information and web sites enabling discussions with and the guidance of career seekers to entrepreneurship as a career option. This is not offered as a training course in entrepreneurship.

All over the world, the future of work and work creation include the concept of entrepreneurial behaviour. In South Africa too, entrepreneurial behaviour is seen as a means of creating more jobs and the desired increase in productivity. This entrepreneurial behaviour should contribute towards reaching the 2014 Millennium development goals. See the websites in Activity 1.

PCAR03X, Unit 5, Activity 1

  1. Skim through these websites for the millennium development goals detailed in them: and
  2. As we can see in (refer back to PCAR02W Unit 4) we have significant challenges to implement the 2014 Millennium development goals in South Africa.  Remember to use this information to create an urgency and action with your local resources and career seeker clients!
  3. List the eight 2014 Millennium development goals from the first two sites above.
  4. Find the life expectancy in South Africa on Gapminder.
  5. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  6. Record your experiences from completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


We expand entrepreneurship by adding entrepreneurial behaviours, otherwise called “enterprise living”, as a part of the solution. It means we are acquiring and creating a culture of urgency, action, entrepreneurial behaviour and a high work ethic.

Let us get the web sites where we can explain to career seekers what it is all about and create urgency for action with them.


PCAR03X, Unit 5, Activity 2

  1. Skim through these web sites for three definitions of intrapreneur and three definitions of entrepreneurs: and
  2. We include many local sites in PCAR04X Unit 1.
  3. Discuss your ideas about, intrapreneurs and entrepreneurs as a basis for responsible career choices, with your study colleagues, family or friends. Once you have done this, continue with the written tasks.
  4. Write the three definitions, which you best understand and with which you identify. Do this for both entrepreneurial behaviour and for entrepreneurship. Highlight the definition of each concept which you prefer. Explain in two sentences why you chose each one of these two definitions.
  5. Explain at least one difference between the two definitions
  6. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  7. Record your experiences from completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


  1. I am sure this was a lot of new information and thoughts. I hope you find it as exciting as we did when we collated the information for you. Can you see that the competencies required for successful careers, services and businesses are almost the same? The level of responsibility, risk and return is higher in owner businesses. Live the entrepreneurial behaviour processes!  You will then be successful in the value you will add to others, in careers, services and businesses.
  2. The purpose is to clarify the difference between the usual view regarding entrepreneurship and the idea of entrepreneurship as proposed in the PCAR. This will help your career seeker clients to understand entrepreneurial thinking. It will emphasise why most people can become entrepreneurial thinkers with knowledge and support from experts in the field. However, this can only happen once people accept the challenge to behave in an entrepreneurial manner.


You will need to have a look at what the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) report says about entrepreneurial habits and the gaps found within South Africans presently. Jeffry A Timmons is a recognized guru on Entrepreneurship with many books used by many Universities in South Africa to teach Entrepreneurship. Do the following activity to get more information about these books.

Type “Timmons entrepreneurship information” into Google and choose South African web sites. From Timmons’ site, you will get solid information regarding the development of entrepreneurial behaviour. People should remember that gaining knowledge while working, even without pay, is cheaper than learning on your own. Such entrepreneurial behaviours or habits can determine career seekers’ level of success in a business or career. This means that career seekers should start working without pay in order to learn from existing businesses. It might mean that career seekers must work only to gain more knowledge and that only at a later stage, they might earn money. Remember to include the knowledge you gain from being involved with successful people when you calculate a career seekers’ wage. The wage itself might have a low rand value, but the knowledge you gain cannot be calculated in terms of money. Browse through newspapers to find out what training courses cost and you will realise how solid this argument is.  You will be able to apply the knowledge for the rest of your work life and in that manner; you will receive “backpay” many times over.

A great deal is being done in South Africa to promote entrepreneurial behaviour.  The government and business have done everything that can be expected of them and they are still trying to do more. It is now up to each of us to take action in our homes and geographical communities. In the following section, attention is given to three important actions to promote entrepreneurship (which includes entrepreneurial behaviour, entrepreneurial thinking and entrepreneurial habits). It is important to think about these three actions and apply them within the context of your own community.

Another entrepreneurial possibility of which you as a career guidance practitioner should be aware of, are franchise opportunities.  Franchising (from the French for honesty or freedom) is simply where you use a method of doing business wherein a franchisor licenses trademarks and tried and proven methods of doing business.  In exchange, the franchisee (the person to whom the permission has been given to use these “trade secrets”, has to make a a recurring payment which is usually a fixed percentage of gross sales or gross profits as well as the annual fees. Good examples of franchised businesses are MacDonalds / B P garages / Scooters Pizzas / etc.  Various tangibles (do you remember that all Wimpies have the same furniture and layout inside?) and intangibles such as national or international advertising (you can recognise the logo in foreign countries too). Training and other support services (for instance regular inspection of kitchens and service standards) are commonly made available by the franchisor, and may indeed be required by the franchisor, who generally requires audited books, and may subject the franchisee or the outlet to periodic and surprise spot checks. Failure of such tests typically involves non-renewal or cancellation of franchise rights.

A business operated under a franchise arrangement is often called a chain store, franchise outlet, or simply franchise.  Read more about franchising on wikipedia.

We list a set of web sites regarding entrepreneurship and franchises to get you and the career seeker started. Follow the links on these web sites to find more resources for you and your career seekers to use. Don’t be disheartened if you bump into difficult web sites. Be aware that some sites are challenging. The processes and required criteria can be tough and even unattainable at a beginner level. (Remember how you battled to ride a bicycle when you were young?) Rather focus on working your way up. Do however take the time to familiarize yourself with these sites, and sift out the ones you can use for future reference.

Assistance in acquiring a FRANCHISED business

Assistance in buying franchises that hold relation with your interests and strengths is also available on the web, from banks and many local businesses near to you.

Not everybody who applies for a franchise licence is given one. Why not? The key is to be awarded the privilege to use a well-known name is your personal ability to run such a venture. You need to prove that you have the competencies required to run one!

  • How can you connect to the franchising world? Find your local franchising body. This is the official web site of the Franchise Association. All you or your career seeker client will ever need to know about franchising and franchises is here.
  • Every bank has franchising assistance. Assist the career seeker to contact the bank of their preference for information.
  • Wikipedia has a clear definition and history of the franchising industry.
  • Access the Small Business Development Agency.

INTERNATIONAL SITES for entrepreneurial career seekers to use

  • Business knowledge and support
  • Our Google search presented too many sites to be included here, so go look at more sites and remember that the number of sites keep growing and the content is updated regularly.


Get your client started with RESOURCES:

  • Department of trade and industry
  • Small business development agency
  • Department of Labour gives support and Learnerships
  • The International Labour Organization supports programs with Chamsa
  • Skills portal has the best summary of Learnerships

How will this help you?

Your client can do the following:

  • The sites above and other specific sites contain opportunities for you and your career seekers.
  • Search for your interest in work and industry in locations closest to you or even internationally.
  • Look for franchises and other organized opportunities. The career seeker can gain competencies by working in a franchise of his/her choice.  Type “franchise” into Google and help your career seeker client find what they need to fit there personal exploration and discoveries from PCAR01V.
  • Business and career opportunities
  • Sample career and enterprise access

Call centre agents and self-training.

Become competent in English spelling and pronunciation and typing skills, Also know your country and its cities. These are basic skills for a call centre operator (and many other jobs). Once you are qualified, you can even work from home or use your skills as a stepping-stone towards the career you really want.

Tourism support, marketing and self-training

Become proficient in English communication and the Internet.  Become knowledgeable about the tourist attractions and tour companies.  Then you can invite tourists to South Africa in partnership with the tourist attractions and tour companies and be part of their experience. Career seekers can use the Internet and local relationships as you did in tutorial letters PCAR01V/102/2007 and PCAR01V/103/2007 to make use of these opportunities.

Get your client started with BUSINESS RESOURCES

  • Encourage people to contribute to business chambers and existing businesses while they learn.
  • Look at the member organizations. Each one has chambers in most places in South Africa and their members can provide assistance to the career seeker. We recommend that you go to a meeting with the local chambers to announce your services and gain access to resources for your future clients.
  • Banks: Have a look at various bank websites and familiarize yourself with the online services that they offer. Let the career seeker fully utilize these banking services – they are often available for free!
  • Financial services industry: Contact local representatives of large financial institutions. They have much in resources, relationships and opportunities for access to business. The industry needs your clients for their business.


Remember that the reason there is such a big emphasis on entrepreneurial (thinking, behaviour, habits, resources and projects) is to empower you to be able to guide career seekers to a new way of living. In spite of there being many jobs available (go to a local job placement agency and ask them how many jobs they are trying to fill), your career seekers might find it better to develop the skills which they already possess by developing themselves into entrepreneurs, than re-skilling themselves to be suitable for existing jobs. The choice is theirs.

Your objective is to be a catalyst for flow of information, resources, opportunity access from existing programs to your constituency. Not to become an entrepreneurship trainer.

Help people get started using their current environment to take the initiative and action. Consider a possible ordinary day for yourself and the career seeker and ask:

  • Do you buy your clothes, have them sewn or sew them yourself?
  • Do you buy your food, or do you grow it?
  • Do you prepare your own food, or do you pay somebody else to do it?
  • Can you bake a cake?  On the other hand, would you prefer to buy a “flop proof”, ready-made one?
  • Who looks after your children, your animals, and the old people in your family?  Do you sometimes need a part-time babysitter?
  • When you travel, do you use your own car, hired transport, public transport?

You and the career seeker can do these and many other things for yourself and others. This is how you learn about service, contribution and self-development.

However, it is also simply clever and good marketing for your own personal career guidance services as career guidance practitioner when you introduce programmes into your own community. You can use school and university projects to access people and resources in your communities. Add great value to the educational programmes which schools and universities offer and in doing so gain powerful marketing for your career guidance practice.

We list a few well-known types of projects and activities below. These well-established projects make it easier for you to attract resources (such as financial assistance, training, networking, counselling, mentoring and advice). You might even be paid for the successful integration of you career seeking clients into the existing job market (this is the principle on which job placement agencies work). The results you achieve will speak for themselves. You can learn much more from established projects than from starting new ones.

  • SIFE of University Students in Free Enterprise helps their local communities. Find the South African SIFE students and contact them to offer your personal skills and your business as career guidance practitioner as a potential part of one of their projects.
  • Business projects for schools are covered in your next activity.
  • Work projects for school learners
  • Work projects for people at home.
  • An implementation in America we can learn from.
  • Many organisations, NGOs (non-governmental organisations), universities, colleges, technicians, technical colleges, and private persons offer courses in how to start a business and how to keep it running at a profit. They also offer financial assistance, training, networking, counselling, mentoring and advice. (Some of these courses are presented in South African schools).
  • You will also find valuable information in the printed media. This means that you have to read your local newspapers. Most papers now have a section on small business and careers. A good source to consult is the weekly newspaper job finder “your national employment guide.” this newspaper focuses on jobs, careers, labour law articles, small business opportunities and self-employment opportunities.


You need to be aware and allow your clients to become aware of the many opportunities and the local and international resources that are available. Leaders and teachers in schools become aware of how they can earn more money while teaching the learners about enterprise projects. Use these projects to help local leaders raise the money. Perhaps you can explain to them that you need a small percentage of the raised funds, which reflects the proportion of the contribution you made. However, it might be better to first practice you personal skills without such a request.

PCAR03X, Unit 5, Activity 3

  1. Type “What students say about entrepreneurship” into Google search and choose two of the sites that you like and say why you liked them more than you liked some of the others.
  2. Type “School going entrepreneur’s projects” into Google search and choose two of the sites that you like and say why you like.  An example we chose is
  3. Enterprise Northland have a complete program that you can learn from for local projects.  You may even ask them for help.
  4. Look at Life Long Learners and use the information to encourage similar local projects.
  5. Can you encourage Life Long Learner attitudes?
  6. Discuss your ideas on enterprise or entrepreneurial programs at school with people already involved like the teachers and also discuss how such a project can grow your business while you help their learners and the school.
  7. For the written part of this activity, do the following:
  • Can you see how to implement such projects locally? If “yes”, state why. If “no” state why not.
  • Which local projects can you share with others? Can you put the local project on a WEBLOG (The same kind of blog you created for yourself in tutorial letter PCAR01V/102/2007)?

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.

Record your experiences from completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.

Here is some feedback from people who have dared to develop their entrepreneurial behaviour, thinking, habits, resources and projects:

Lional Brits ( Grade 7) “I’m glad I got the opportunity to start my own business.”

The Bafanas (four youths from Umbonambi) “We learnt how to voice our opinions, pool our ideas and use all our sources. Forward the entrepreneurs programme.”

Jafta Moloi (20 ) “The programme must be supported and it has got to spread around South Africa to create successful entrepreneurs of the future.”

Mpho, who was failing in maths, realised the importance of the subject when he started buying and selling T-shirts.

Siphiwe thought that buying something for $5 and selling it for $10 was like dealing in drugs – illegal. Up until then he was not aware that there is joy in serving others and making a margin for your effort.

These are examples that entrepreneurship educators provided of the experiences of learners who had been exposed to entrepreneurship programmes.  (Source: The International Entrepreneurship Education Forum held in New Mexico, 1995.)

School learner projects from across the world are brought to you via the Internet.  You can also take what you learn worldwide and earn a trip to any destination in the world as others have done working from incentives for doing just this! Students from the University of Pretoria were sponsored to recently attended meetings in Norway. This meant that they did not have to pay anything!  Apply on your own selected web sites and see what can happen when you align yourself with existing programs through being useful to them and to be noticed.


Small services such as delivering newspapers, washing cars, growing and/selling vegetables might be some of the business ideas that you might find around student entrepreneurs.

Keep on consulting the web to find knowledge, resources and opportunities. Become useful to the people and they will notice you.

We hope that this gives you some food for thought.


We challenge you to encourage people to use enterprise living, entrepreneurial behaviour, entrepreneurial thinking, entrepreneurial resources and entrepreneurial projects in all careers. Help people get connected to start careers and businesses.

In short, become entrepreneurial yourself.

In this unit, you gained information on how to help your career seeker clients to become aware of the opportunities to be entrepreneurial in growing careers and businesses. We showed how most people could use entrepreneurial behaviour while accessing knowledge, resources, and opportunities. We highlighted some of the processes to implement in your work life and your career seeker clients’ work lives.


In the changing world of work there is almost unlimited work available for people with the right competencies. How does it happen that people are perpetually complaining that there is not enough work to do? Perhaps the problem lies with the skills and competencies a person has to offer to the workplace. This means that you need to gain the right competencies along with work access and work experience in order to ensure a job for yourself (and your future clients). You can do this by exposing yourself to different work situations and by doing work with people who are already have a measure of success in their work situation.

This unit illustrates the importance and reasons for you and your clients to work with someone. Preferably this should be someone close to you or someone who is one level superior to you as you will have to take up some of their time in the workplace and time is money!

How do you convince them that you are serious about your mission? Show them that you and your career seekers are doing peer group learning and need to learn with them (Module 1). The benefits that they will get out of the experience are personal growth from explaining and talking about their jobs and they can earn money from recruitment and placement fees. You need to empower them to share their work experience with you. Remind them that we are always the owners of our own choices and actions. Their decision to allow you to enter their world of work (as an observer) can make or break you (and your future clients). Our beliefs and attitudes keep us doing what we are currently doing. You can tactfully point out to them that you would not have approached them if you did not know/believe that they are successful role models whom you would like to follow and you know they are certain of their success and will not be threatened by your presence in their work situation.  Refer back to the attitude module (PCAR 01W Unit 5) in order to use the information which you studied to strengthen your argument and to convince them of your seriousness.

Don’t we often wait for something to happen and then we are disappointed when nothing happens or no one intervenes to change our circumstances? Now you are in the process of getting the tools which make it possible for you to choose to take action and make a difference to your own life and to the lives of others!

You can to refer to stratification and communities in PCAR3X Unit 3 to remind yourself of what separates the rich and the poor.  It is beliefs and habits which include lack of exposure to different work situations. If you decide to create work related experiences for yourself and others, you have demonstrate an attitude of, “I can” vs. one of “They must” in which you sit back and wait for opportunities to come to you.

The difference between South Africa and the United States of America is that South Africans often see work as punishment and something to be avoided. This statement is based on the personal experience of many of our family and friends who have visited or immigrated to the United States. This is prevalent among many young people across all the races. A young South African who only gets his/her first work experience at the age of 18 or higher is literally 3-5 years behind their average American counterpart who will start working in low level minimum wage jobs as early as 15 years. They build up references and preferences from an early age which enable them to make more informed and reliable choices by the time they reach the age of 18. Follow the link below and briefly familiarise yourself with the concept of work ethics and the difference it can make to an individual and a country.  Unfortunately, it is difficult for young people to become productive because of unique factors in our country but it is up to you as career guide practitioner to be part of the solution.


Competencies determine where and if you can enter the world of work.  However, you also need to become aware of the facts regarding the present and future world of work AND increase your knowledge and skills regarding the present and future world of work to change people’s opportunities.

All the motivation and reasons for knowledge acquisition are found in the reports in Activity 1 below. These reports are published every year and they keep you up to date with the size and nature of our gaps. Both reports state that access to knowledge and the ability to grasp or interpret that knowledge is the key separator or stratifier between rich and poor.

PCAR03X, Unit 4, Activity 1

  1. Download the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Report and view the gaps between rich and poor to become aware of the level and reasons why the rich and poor stay apart.  Consider how this knowledge can assist you in motivating people to gain the competencies and join the successful communities and societies matched to their personal choices of industry and work. You will use the same techniques to convince career seekers to build bridges and make their own plans for work access and growth.
  2. Discuss what you have learnt with your study colleagues.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or Google search to explore and discover matching areas. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Answer the following questions:
  • How can you use the above information to convince people we are separated by what we know and by our exposure? Write down two specific uses for each.
  • Think about a structured way to use the information to enthuse people into taking action. Write down two actions they can take right now!

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


You should now know that all resources are readily available and accessible by people with workplace exposure and requisite competencies. If you approach a company or government with no experience or no qualifications asking for help, they will most certainly not pay much attention to you let alone give you access to resources. If you, however, approach them with a plan with experience or with credible qualifications, they will see you as part of the solution to a problem and not the problem itself. You thus come with the support of the leaders in your community and/or a company or institution which makes you a safer investment rather than a risky expense. As career guidance practitioner you should be able to see where you fit in and how you should present yourself as part of the solution and not the problem.

This is the way in which you should gain access and exposure to work opportunities:

  • Awareness through engagement and exposure [please refer to unit in which student was taught to do this],
  • Acquire knowledge about the workplace
  • ICT competencies and access by using the web (World Wide Web or WWW)
  • Communication competencies and communication with leaders
  • Relationships with working people and leaders
  • Practice in peer groups at home and with friends

The working people in your close proximity form part of the broader successful community. They have access to their workplace and from there can generate further access for you to investigate.

The gaps in the CV/resumes of those not finding jobs clearly show that they have not shown initiative to gain work experience. Remember that if you start as a poorly paid messenger, this does not mean you will stay at that level for the rest of your life.  Typical gaps in a CV are regarding the following competencies:

  • Access to knowledge
  • Past experience or exposure enabling one to grasp and apply the knowledge.
  • English language comprehension and a reading speed of at least 250 words a minute and with an 85% comprehension score
  • Internet access to access the knowledge
  • A desire to serve others to build relationships in chosen communities of industry, expertise and support
  • Knowledge of the gaps and a plan to bridge these gaps.

When you yourself as PCAR student have mastered these competencies, you are guaranteed access to a vast range of job opportunities. In turn, you can now guide career seekers to help them highlight their gaps and find the solutions by filling the gaps. Remember always show the solution first.

PCAR03X, Unit 4, Activity 2

  1. How can you facilitate access to the world of work for career seekers?
  2. Opportunities are almost limitless for the right competencies.  However, how do you use self-drive and self-education to get there?  In addition, what opportunities exist with the necessary resources and structures?
  3. Discuss what you learnt with your study colleagues.
  4. Use Dictionary, Wikipedia or Google and
  5. Answer the following questions:
  • How can a better work ethic benefit both young and old? Name two factors for each (Refer back to Module 1 Unit 5 to recap values).
  • Taking the above information into account, make a list of five prominent gaps that you yourself have in your own personal CV. With the new knowledge, give five solutions to filling those gaps. These can include further education, more work experience or extending your network.

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


Do you agree that:

  • People are isolated from work opportunities through the lack of communication skills, ownership for themselves and clear plans of action to bridge the divide?
  • Jobs, resources, opportunities and challenges are freely available in South Africa?
  • Your own awareness and courage to use the resources to fill the gaps in your CV is all that was missing? If you feel that you still are not sure how to fill the gaps in your CV, you need to work through this module again, and specifically mention your problem in your MiActivityBook.


We often make the mistake of concerning ourselves with the problem to such an extent that even the solution eventually becomes part of the problem. The above information should get you into a solution based frame of mind, where the focus does not lie in defining the problem but rather in finding a logical solution. Such a solution should provide a means to an end. The solution is simple in its essence but complex in its implementation.

It is up to you as career guidance practitioner to

  • Use the tools you have acquired in previous exercises to increase an individual’s awareness of the opportunities around him/her.
  • Guide him/her regarding what needs to be done and how to take advantage of the solutions.
  • Instil an attitude of personal ownership, planning and initiating.
  • Help the career seeker to approach his/her leaders and those with resources with a plan that warrants attention and success.
  • Introduce people to the internet and its benefits.
  • Mobilise your community.
  • Help people realise the value embedded in their extending communities.


The economy grows to accommodate all people. This is due to the new world of work’s ability to change rapidly. Type “economy grows with competencies” into Google search and see what happens!

“The world of work is changing”. Type this phrase into Google; choose some web sites that interest you.  Can you see how much the workplace has changed, and the fun you can have once you understand this? However, if you do not embrace change and prepare for continuous change, it is not exciting and exhilarating but threatening. Be aware of change, stay with it, and drive it. When you initiate change, you will always be at its forefront. Otherwise, you might become the victim of change and by doing so you set yourself up to be left behind. This is the nature of the new world of work. The only way you can stay ahead is by keeping yourself up to date with the latest knowledge and growth trends within your chosen profession or industry.

PCAR03X, Unit 4, Activity 3

  1. View the changing world of work web site and view the preparation required for the new world of work. There are limitless jobs and business opportunities for people with the right competencies.  Consider how it can assist you in motivating people to gain the competencies and to join successful communities and societies. Which are matched to their personal choices of industry and work?  You will use the same techniques to help career seekers to build bridges and make their own plans for work access and growth.
  2. Discuss what you learnt with your study colleagues.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or Google search to explore and discover matching areas. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Answer the following questions:
  • How can you use the above information to convince people that everyone can know what they want and plan for the new world of work? Write down two specific uses for each.
  • Think about a structured way to use the information to enthuse people to take action. Write down two actions they can take right now! An example is creating motivation through relevant information and exposure.

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


Module 4 guides you to help your clients implement what they learned from you about the aspects of the self, skills and knowledge. You and your clients will:

  • Grow your awareness of the world of work
  • Grow your knowledge to access the world of work
  • Use ICT for communication and access to the WWW (to keep moving life long)
  • Communicate using understandable English and suitable numeracy
  • Build relationships with people in work and with right resources
  • Make a contribution to others close to you
  • Practise these skills at home, with friends and use them in the work place.

Is this a difficult task? Not if you serious about becoming a worthwhile career guidance practitioner. The easy things you can do immediately to prepare, enter, and thrive in the new world of work are described and explained from Module 1 through to where we are now. We were careful to ensure that you and your career seeker clients can master each step. Here are the steps you need to take:

1.         The first step is for you to believe what you have read and learnt in PCAR.

2.         The next step is to help other people come to similar conclusions and realisations.


You now know there are many jobs available in South Africa. People who come to you as clients seeking jobs should also know this. You know that specific competencies coupled with an action plan ensure access to jobs. Your clients need to know this too. In order to do this, you must help your clients become aware of their work preferences and to be knowledgeable about their industry of choice, specifically their work of choice within that industry.  Then you should assist them to plan a written work access plan which they are prepared to follow and implement.

At this stage of the Programme for Career Guidance Practitioners, you know enough about the world of work to give your clients a vision of themselves in a specific job in the world of work. The competencies which you have acquired for yourself as career guidance practitioner will set you on the path to join successful people. Your success helps you to invest in the future of others and achieve further personal success! Just like Bill Gates did.

Key questions

  • What do parents, family and friends mean to the career seeker?
  • How do you apply the knowledge that you have gained about yourself?
  • How would you remove limitations to communicating and finding career opportunities?


This module has two focal points.  It looks at the use of knowledge that you have gained about yourself (after working through Modules 1 & 2); and it looks at how to involve and inform parents and family. Up to this point you have gained some insight into personality, aptitude, abilities, interests, values and careers in general.  It is now important to apply the knowledge about these concepts to inform parents, family, and friends, to say thank you (do you remember how this was explained in PCAR03X: Unit 1?) and to attract resources to implement your work access campaign. Inform them regarding your personality, your abilities and values and what possible careers will suit you best. Remember that this is the same process your career seeker clients will follow. It is important for you to go through the same process to be able to help and guide your future clients effectively.


PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 1

  1. Open and and study the Venn diagram again.  Also, refer back to Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/103/2007.
  2. You have already explored your interests, values, aptitude, and abilities.  Now you need to enter this into the Venn diagram to see how it overlaps and determines your passions.  Use the Venn diagram from Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/103/2007 and discover what it is that you have not yet shared with your parents, family and friends. Use the structured results from your exercises in Module 1 and preparation for communication in Module 2 and share what you have discovered.
  3. You will use the words which you discovered by completing Module 1 (use the adjectives from the Johari window from PCAR01V/103/2007 as a guideline) to enter in to the Venn diagram.  Use the Venn diagram below as a structure and let others complete it with you.  Discuss the results with parents, family and friends.
  4. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  5. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments


You will find that after completing the Venn diagram on your aptitude, personality, interest and values, you will be able to communicate your own personal qualities to your parents, family and friends more easily.

PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 2

  1. What do you think is the value of knowing yourself with regard to your personality, aptitude, interest and values, for a career choice?   Briefly write down five points about the importance of knowing yourself.
  2. Discuss your ideas about knowledge of yourself as a basis for a responsible career choice with your study colleagues, family or friends.
  3. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  4. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


Do you remember that choosing a career implies that you are going to be active in a certain career field for at least eight hours per day?  Will you be able to do the work that is expected of you and will you find it interesting enough to spend all that time at it? Do you have the necessary ability to use your talents or do you need training to become competent?

You must remember that the way that you see yourself should determine your career choice.  However, in the next section, attention will be given to the way that your parents, friends or family see you regarding your personality, aptitude, interest and values. Their opinion regarding your personal qualities will give you greater insight into yourself.


You will gain access to social networks and support by informing the important people in your life about your work preferences and opportunities. The career seeker will, however, require firm support during these change processes.[1] You as career guidance practitioner should transfer your knowledge and skills of the processes involved in informing and support to your career seeker.

Keep in mind that parents, family and friends:

  • give verbal input regarding the different careers which you might be considering, and
  • unconsciously model their specific careers to you and your community.  Therefore, be careful not to explore too many other career opportunities and miss the obvious career choices around you!

PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 3

  1. Study the Johari window again.  Also, refer back to tutorial letter PCAR01V/103/2007.
  2. Use the Johari window from PCAR01V/103/2007 and discover what it is that you have not yet shared with your parents, family or friends. Use the structured results from your exercises in Module 1 in preparation for communication in Module 2 and share what you have discovered.  As author, I would like to thank Plug, Meyer, Louw and Gouws (1991:168) for their specific applications of the Johari window.
  3. Make a page with the four quadrants. Use the Johari window, (Figure 3.2 below) as an example) and let others complete it with you.
  4. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  5. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.
  6. This is an example of a career related use of the Johari window as described by Gouws and Kruger (1994:164). Please complete it as part of PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 3.

Figure 3.2 The Johari window applied to a career seeker


Personality ……………………………………………..



Aptitude ………………………………………………….



Interest …………………………………………………..



Values ……………………………………………………



Personality ……………………………………………..



Aptitude ………………………………………………….



Interest …………………………………………………..



Values ……………………………………………………



Personality ……………………………………………..



Aptitude ………………………………………………….



Interest …………………………………………………..



Values ……………………………………………………




Did you learn anything new about yourself by completing the Johari window?  You can use these processes with family, friends, family and local leaders in the workplace. As a result the people around you will get to know you and during your discussion with them, you will get to know them to a certain extent. Getting exposure to each other and your willingness to share your intrapersonal qualities with them will contribute to reducing possible prejudice and bias and the meeting might even provide a working environment that might be available to you in the future. Meeting each other, thanking them for the opportunity for discussion and sharing information about yourself make for a safe growing experience for all.


Unlike urban youths, young people in rural and remote areas generally have to leave home to attend secondary school. They most certainly have to go to urban centres to do any type of training, which can put them on a career path.  Children from the rural areas do not have the same background knowledge on career and study possibilities as their urban friends due to limited exposure to the few careers that their community members have. Obviously a smaller variety of job opportunities is available to them in their rural areas.   Most career-related information and resources are located in distant centres which are inaccessible to most rural families.  Professionals, who have the required career-related knowledge, are concentrated in larger urban settings (Jeffery, Lehr, Hache & Campbell 1992:240-241).

Jeffery et al. (1992:241) found from their research in rural parts that the major problems faced by rural parents were lack of career-related information and lack of knowledge on how to obtain available information.  They came to the conclusion that parents were not adequately equipped to assist their children in making job choices, e.g. in terms of information about the range of jobs available and in understanding what certain jobs entail.

Jeffery et al.  (1992:246-248) did research in Canada and listed a number of hypotheses (expectations) to be verified in interviews with parents in rural areas.  The list was split into two groups: family, community and cultural reviews and job, career and labour-related concerns.

It would be interesting to note the outcomes of similar research under South African circumstances!

Read carefully through the list of hypotheses/expectations.  What would you predict the outcome of research in South Africa to be? For interest’s sake indicate your view in the true or false column provided.
Family, community and cultural concerns TRUE FALSE
1           Problems result from very close bonding of the young person to parents, peers, home and community.

2          Widely held beliefs that home communities are the best or only place to be (ethnocentrism).

3          Fears held by young persons and perhaps parents that young people are unable to compete successfully elsewhere.

4          Situations where the young person is socialised into non-creative solutions/non-provocative stances when it comes to the pursuit of careers.

5          Many members of the community (the potential role models for both the parents and the youth) demonstrate that they have adapted successfully to what is, in many respects, a difficult local situation.  In other words, there are many role models who are “surviving” as unemployed people.

6          Many gender-related issues and problems.

7          Problems resulting from early pregnancies.

8          Widely held views that it is easier and cheaper to stay at or near home.

9          Inter-generational patterns of welfare or unemployment insurance dependency.

10         Common parental strategies, which encourage the young person to return home when there is stress.

11         A limited number of role models in communities capable of demonstrating good career decision-making skills.

12         Tendencies for young people (who leave the home community for career purposes) to go primarily to those settings where there already is a support network rather than to unfamiliar communities.

13         Greater problems for youths associated with leaving the old situation, than with their ability to cope with a new situation.

14         People have problems because of substance abuse.

Jobs, career and labour market information concerns TRUE FALSE
1           An absence of jobs available in the area.

2          An absence of information on places (local or distant) where one might get work.

3          A limited amount of knowledge about the wide range of career options that exist.

4          Limited parental and youth knowledge about how to identify persons or services that can supply them with or lead them to information.

5          A lack of parental and youth awareness that there are often support services in a new community from which they might seek help (i.e. churches and social clubs).

6          An extensive misinformation about what it is like in other centres.

7          A relative absence of “mentors” or persons who encourage or challenge youth to search more widely.

8         A relative absence of parents with strategies for finding work.


An analysis of the data collected in Canada by Jeffery et al (1992:249) supported many of the hypotheses in the above table. This meant that their expectations were well founded.

However, it was found that parents expected and supported youth to leave the community.  Furthermore, no support was found for the hypothesised notion that parents encourage their children to return home if confronted with stressful situations when away.   Parents also knew that career identification and problems existed and tried hard to identify solutions.

Parents also expressed the view that because of their lack of education, they did not see themselves as good role models for their children.  They also felt that they lacked adequate experience and knowledge to offer sound educational advice.

If the same problems regarding career guidance by rural parents occurred in South Africa, what assistance could be given to them to help them to prepare themselves to guide their children in a career choice? Remember, you intend to guide people in your community regarding their choice of careers!


I would like to make a few suggestions for you to add to the ideas which you might have. Is it possible to bring rural career seekers closer to the same processes that successful workplace families already have? This could be done by exposing them to successful and advantaged people.  How is this done? You could arrange to bridge the difference between them and successful workers by accessing successful work people through civil and civic organizations. You could help the rural career seekers to communicate their knowledge and interests to their parents, family and community members. Not only does this give them the opportunity to practise speaking about themselves, but it will prevent them from isolating themselves from the community. Instead they will raise the knowledge and awareness of the jobs to which they have been exposed within the community as a whole.

You also need to assist parents to assist young people during the transition from home to work.  Parents and leaders should be briefed during the processes to obtain and participate in the information exchange on careers and jobs.  Under your guidance, community leaders could assist parents to form groups for discussion about careers and educational activities. The following information is important and should be included in the communication:

  • finding career information
  • coping with the problems of registration, loans, insurance, etc.
  • helping children to leave home
  • coping with loneliness and relocation problems
  • helping young people anticipate and deal with their new freedom
  • helping young people maintain a pride in their roots
  • helping young people cope with fears of being “different”
  • communicating with and staying in contact when a young person is away

Remember that extensive web resources exist and the leaders’ involvement makes the choices safer.


Successful families have structures in place which remove barriers to communication with their children. A circle of families can offer many possible opportunities to the children of their friends. Access and knowledge are shared freely for the sole purpose of adding value to young people and offering them opportunities in life.  In rural areas this is not possible. The only option is thus to increase knowledge about career opportunities by creating a partnership between the youth and the older community. Everyone learns and everyone grows and this will continue to benefit the community for generations to come.

It is therefore important for you as career guide to practise the process of informing the people around you about your own personal qualities (your own Johari window) and about the career opportunities which you can offer them.  You need to help the career seeker use the same strategies as successfully as you have done to avoid their isolation and to promote knowledge distribution among the people in the community.

[1] The change process refers to the transition from a current state to a desired state.  Explore this website about managing the change process.

Key questions

  • How do we uncover gaps in relationships and make plans to bridge them?
  • What is sociometry with regards to choosing relationships or networks for success?
  • What are social networks?
  • How do we organise sociometric and social networks to understand our choice of relationships?
  • What are the limitations of sociometric data?


By now the career seeker, who is your client, should be aware of his/her opportunities and preferences.  The career seeker should also by now be able to apply the career exploration, discovery and communication processes.

Consider the following case study:

Mpho is considering a midlife career change to grow his contribution to society and earn more. He is struggling to integrate new experiences, interests and relationships.  He needs to build a network consisting of experienced people so that he can learn from them.  Mpho also needs to discover the gaps in the areas of his relationships and make plans and take action to bridge them. We can also state this differently: How do we know what our strengths in relationships are and how can we make plans to grow and apply them?

Mpho visits you as his career guidance practitioner to gain more insight. Using sociometry you are able to help Mpho answer this question: How can he make and apply plans regarding the growth and application of his own strengths in developing required relationships?


Sociometry and social networks are techniques used to explore and become aware of interpersonal relationships throughout existing and new networks. You need to explore the participation of your client in networks and gain insight into current networks through a sociogram.  You might establish that your client

  • does not have insight into the functioning of members in a network
  • does not realise the importance of having access to a network
  • has access to a network/s, but does not utilise this access in his/her favour.

Members of networks use personal data regarding themselves and the purpose of the network to grow their relationships required for their work or goals. PCAR01V/102/2008 and PCAR01V/103/2008 contain tools like the Johari window, which can be used to assess the functioning of the individual within networks. This is to say that they know in which aspect of the group they will function best, be it writing, public speaking, presenting, organising etc. This knowledge can be applied to grow intra personal knowledge and facilitate introspection into your relationships.

Remember that the sociometric and social network processes raise your awareness of your current relationships, why you maintain them and what relationships you require for real success. One of the outcomes of an understanding of the importance of social networks is to build relationships and networks with people of your choice and to learn from them while you share your personal resources (knowledge, experience and values) with them. In this manner, you add value to them, gain from them and create a win-win situation.

Support your preferences of work and industry (selected in PCAR01V) by networking in the next modules. In this unit, we heighten your awareness of current links and networks. You must develop your personal development plan to access and contribute to networks locally, nationally and internationally.

Choose the people you associate with carefully. Partake in activities that will allow you to extend your network in your desired field. This includes the real life projects of which you choose to be a part. These relationships are like capital for future choices and productivity. People in your network are developed through deliberate choice by using your specific traits and preferences. These are principles you should apply throughout your career. Opportunity comes with people and this will help you gain access to both.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 1

  1. Open and
  2. Study the sociometric principles and identify how you would use them to increase your levels of success and grow your network.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search extensively to learn more about the subject. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Discuss with your study colleagues, since each person grows relationships differently!
  5. Useful Sociometric tools can be applied widely in relationship building.
  6. Answer the following:
  • Where and how can you use networking which is aligned with your choices? (Refer to PCAR 01V).
  • How would you cultivate relationships differently from the manner in which your existing work group does? Write down two specific points.
  • Study and general networking. Investigate the exploration and discoveries of PCAR01V and explore interviews more widely. Discuss your findings with your study group. Practise your newly found skills on them. By doing this you will develop the skills required for effective networking and you will also be able to help your client more effectively.

Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.





On completion of the above task you will begin to understand the importance and value of a network. Networking opens up doors and opportunities that would otherwise be very difficult for you as an individual to access. By building networks you also develop trust relationships and acquire other people’s trusted networks. Your entry and access to people who can contribute to your personal growth, therefore increases exponentially.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 2

  1. Refer to your own information from your gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the candidate and use your new awareness of social networks to become aware of relationships (existing and required). How would you grow one new relationship that will further your career options while growing awareness of interests, talents, aptitude, industry exposure and work choice?
  3. Write down an open and a closed question that will help you establish how your client can use sociometric principles and networking to grow his/her network. When your client uses these questions, he/she will become aware of the benefits that go with a wide network and good social relationships. .
  4. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.



Each person cultivates relationships differently. Be aware of the differences in your group. All of us have our preferences in how we like to build and maintain relationships e.g. meeting up with people at social gatherings for a drink or two or spending time with the people at your sports club or at the church. All of these are examples of places you can meet people, build relationships and form networks. Add value to others and they will introduce you to people you did not know before who can add value to you.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 3

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareer Book gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the Facilitator and guide the candidate to use his/her new awareness of social networks to become aware of relationships (existing and required).   How would you help the candidate to cultivate one new relationship that will further his/her career options while exploring interests, talents, aptitude, industry exposure and work choice?
  3. Where applicable use Dictionary, Wikipedia or a Google search to clarify words and concepts. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. New information gets you and your client thinking and creates an awareness of where you are.
  4. Write down how you facilitated the networking process to grow the career seeker’s current network to one that is closer to the one needed for success. This will include matching aspects such as interests, talents, aptitude, and industry exposure as well as work choice.
  5. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.


Be aware that the new networks will be limited by current knowledge and abilities to communicate.  Communication skills from PCAR01V/102/2008 and PCAR01V/103/2008 must be emphasised all the time. Let the career seekers emphasise The Johari Window and Transactional Analysis, as you have used them to grow your awareness, to gain knowledge about yourself and to find words to describe that knowledge.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 4

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareer Book gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the Observer while the facilitator in your study group guides the candidate to use his/her new awareness of social networks to become aware of relationships (existing and required).Take note of how people will interact and grow their interpersonal network differently according to their different interests, talents, aptitude, industry exposure and work choice. Observe these differences and remember that you can apply what you witness in your own context and experience as a Facilitator and Candidate.
  3. Where applicable, use Dictionary, Wikipedia or a Google search to clarify words and concepts.  The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Write down how you observed and gave feedback during networking with your current and required networks. Also write at least one personal lesson you learned from the experience that you can reapply when building your own and your future client’s networks.
  5. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.


Be aware that the new networks will be limited by current knowledge and abilities to communicate. Communication skills from PCAR01V/102/2008 and PCAR01V/103/2008 must be emphasised all the time. The career seekers will need practise to develop the ability to effectively communicate their aptitudes and talents to prospective employers and develop their career development and support network successfully.


In this unit we discussed sociometrics and social networks to become aware of choices about how to grow people in our networks as a medium to contribute to others. Contributions to others are mostly characterised by reciprocity: what you do to others, they do to you. You never require permission to make contributions to others. Contribution earns you and your clients access to resources and opportunities as explained in PCAR03X (Module 3).

In PCAR01V, Unit 4, we examined the use of networking to determine required access to industries and work skills. The practical application of sociometrics and social networks in PCAR03X will require you to refer back to this module. Always refer to relevant local and international websites, compare, and learn from the ones you used in this course and the ones you will use in the future.