Career Guidance

Key questions

  • Who are the people with the knowledge and resources?
  • How do you gain access to these sources of knowledge and resources?

3.1 Introduction

In Unit 2, you were provided with another tool (the careers library) for use in building and expanding as a career guidance practitioner. This unit lets you experience the processes used to access people with resources, existing infrastructures and relationships, which you can use to prepare for your presentations in the assignment (PCAR04Y: Unit 4) and the Workshops/Exhibitions in PCAR053.

3.2 People with knowledge and resources

Your on-line careers information library from the previous unit includes a heading named Relationships. You should keep an ordered list of relationships and resources you can access and utilise for clients and for yourself. Any client’s interest can be connected to associations and people locally who know people in these careers.  Simply ask people to connect you as explained in the social networking processes of PCAR01V/103.

3.2.1 National resources accessible in each municipality or metro

PCAR04Y, Unit 3, Activity 1

Here are a few links that can serve as examples of national resources that should be represented in your ward, municipality or metro.  The sites are self-explanatory.  Help your career seekers to mobilize and access the people with these resources.

Government resources

Your local province publishes information about initiatives and invites career seekers to participate.

Your local municipality

Your local business chambers, and member sites like http://www.sacob.co.za/, and the www.ahi.co.za/.

Do you see how business-networking organizations are growing across the country and the world?

  1. Add links similar to these in your own region and explain briefly, why you chose them, and in what way they can help you.  If the web information does not exist yet, use the links as guidelines to find similar information and the people who are appointed to drive the initiatives.  Simply help them and allow them to help you.  They have access to the resources that you require to do your job.
  2. Find local email addresses of representatives of these resources in these websites: (You will repeat the exercise once you are familiar with it to access many other people with resources from organizations, institutions and corporations.)
  3. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book for the CV exercises and as part of your assignments.
  4. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference.

Feedback:

Access, support and use this infrastructure of resources and leaders. The resources belong to the community and the people in the organisations serve the community. Help them do the work that is expected of them!  Civil, civic and business organisations have people who want to help and are ready if only they can reach the people. These people need to rely on people like you to mobilise and organise the community for them to meet the right people, in groups, that share common interests.

3.2.2 Professional bodies

All of the following professional bodies have representatives within academic institutions who assist people in accessing jobs.  They will also be able to assist you as career guide to find and explore the route that someone needs to take if he/she wishes to enter a specific job in that industry.

  • Career guidance practitioners
  • Teacher associations
  • Nursing associations
  • Accounting boards
  • Legal boards
  • Tourism boards
  • Information and communication technology associations

PCAR04Y, Unit 3, Activity 2

  1. Choose one of the above associations, identify Careers within them, and show where you found people willing to share information with you (Whether it is their knowledge, experience, or network) and explain how you would use these connections when serving future clients.
  2. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book for the CV exercises and as part of your assignments.
  3. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference..

Feedback

These careers can be researched through their respective associations, federations, institutes, societies, etc. They can be approached to obtain advice and information about potential career opportunities within their respective fields. If you did not find adequate information at an academic institution, such as Unisa, do not hesitate to engage in a more thorough research about the specific topic. The knowledge can only stand you in good stead in future.

3.2.3 Helping career seekers gain access to institutions of higher learning

THE MAIN WEB SITES IN RSA:

Local organizations that you as career guide can approach are:

  • CHE (Council on Higher Education)
  • SAQA (South African Qualification Authority)

Home based or community based training:

Work place training:

Further education and training:

There are also international organizations where one can study.  However, they have very strict admission requirements.  It is relatively easy to find information on any university or course by conducting a search on google.com.

PCAR04Y, Unit 3, Activity 3

  1. Choose a course of study required by a profession from the previous activity and find out what the admission requirements are, and how to apply for a bursary if available.  Choose one local university and one international one.  This is practice for assisting a client through the same process
  2. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareerBook as part of your assignments.
  3. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference..

3.2.4 Career centres on the web

There are many career centres on the web. You will find them when working with Human Resource departments within companies. These sites and centres hold information about the jobs in the career seeker’s field as well as where to find them. If you can add value to people with this knowledge by introducing them to competent and willing people, you might be able to negotiate the payment of a percentage payable by the company or a placement agency.

TO GET STARTED AND INVESTIGATE THESE CENTRES:

Career information and support for students at:

Career centre:

Help the career seekers find centers relevant to their chosen work in selected industries.  Examples for:

3.2.5 Educational magazines and newspapers

All the information contained in educational magazines and newspapers can be found on the Internet with a little bit of effort.  Add these sites to your library as sites to consult when helping someone match their skills to a job.

Help the career seeker to match his/her interests to a job.  Keep in mind that they are the only experts on themselves.  The better you catalog your sites and information, the more effectively you will assist them to find their current ideal career.

PCAR04Y, Unit 3, Activity 4

  1. Open the Google web browser site www.google.co.za.
  2. Take the chosen profession from Activity 3 and find two educational magazine and newspaper sites using Google.  Use all the search tools that you have become familiar with to make your search more efficient.  For example, use Wikipedia to look up what accounting is all about (you might even find some very useful links on there).  Use this knowledge in your Google search.
  3. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises and as part of your assignments.
  4. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference.

Feedback:

Try to let your career seekers do most of the search work.  They will probably recognise a useful site better that you can.  This is after all, their area of interest!

3.2.6 Companies/Corporations

Business entities want access to people for business and investment opportunities which will lead them to new and competent employees.  When your clients are ready and know where they want to become involved, you must use your skills to find the person a company or corporation that needs people with their specific credentials.  Then you must help them prepare a CV and arrange an appointment.

By now, you have practiced these skills extensively and now it is merely a matter of implementing them.  Remember previous activities and sites and list them in your on-line library for future use.  You can approach companies and corporations through business chambers to mobilize your career seekers.  You will do this in the assignment (Unit 4) of this module.

3.2.7 Embassies

Embassies have a lot of information about their country and their national universities. Their internal staff can also be helpful in finding jobs and identifying the skills and qualifications which their countries demand. Utilise your relationships with the local leaders (and business chambers) to make contact at an embassy. Instead of going directly to an embassy, you are making use of a trusted and reliable person/organisation and this will allow you access to further resources. Remember to take advantage of the people whose job it is to connect the community with the leaders and other resources.

Sometimes students want to know about overseas studies. Therefore, it is useful to keep information on overseas institutions. This information is freely available on the web on the homepage of each embassy. Make an appointment to see them in groups or invite them to your workshops.

Inform and invite embassies to your workshops as they have resources, both intellectual and financial, that they could provide you with.

3.3 Access to sources of information

In Section 3.2 you were presented with infrastructures and relationships that you will need to grow and help your career seekers.  This section helps you to prepare your presentation for gaining access to people with resources, existing infrastructures and relationships.

What follows is a guideline that you as career guide can follow to gain access to various sources of information.  Remember to establish and advertise yourself as on one of many career centres worldwide when making contact with job sites, associations and corporations.  Here is a tip on how to obtain access:

Workplace experience

Your goal is to access and mobilise people in your local business chambers who in turn must mobilise the local business community who they serve.  You want to provide your career seekers with the opportunity to gain workplace exposure and even arrange for first-hand experiences. Remember, once you have completed the career guidance process with your clients, they will be mobilised as career seekers.  This means that they have identified their passion, their talents, and skills and that their parents, family, friends and leaders are involved with them. The career seekers know their personal gaps that require additional training. Thus, the career seekers are engaged with programmes that will help them close the gaps and meet their future career goals.  They also know the gaps in the market which they can target and they have planned their strategies and tactics for access. Most businesses will gladly assist such people with workplace experience.

PCAR04Y, Unit 3, Activity 5

  1. What is workplace experience?  Examine the following websites about workplace experience.
  2. http://www.student.cardonald.ac.uk/pub/wpxp/intro.htm
  3. http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/brochure/stepup/coop.html
  4. Follow this case study on work place experience.
  5. Guidelines on how to keep a work place experience log.
  6. How will these websites help your career seekers make the most of their workplace experience?  Compile a short checklist for your career seekers on what they should do during their workplace experience.
  7. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises and as part of your assignments.
  8. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference.

3.4 Conclusion

In this unit, you have learnt how you can access people with knowledge and resources by adding value to them while taking your client to new heights. In the assignment, you will use the skills you have acquired during the course to access resources and information in collaboration with people in existing organisations and institutions. These processes can be repeated and expanded. The only limits you will encounter are those that you impose on yourself. You have the tools and the ability to make a viable difference with definite intent.

We congratulate you on moving on to the final unit in PCAR04Y where you share your experiences with local committees and cement your relationships with activists and champions.  In the assignment, you will make contact with business chambers and committees to gain access to business opportunities and workplace experience.  More importantly, these contacts will start growing your career guidance network and future business.

5.1 INTRODUCTION

The objective of Module 3 Unit 5 is to introduce the career guidance practitioner to information and web sites enabling discussions with and the guidance of career seekers to entrepreneurship as a career option. This is not offered as a training course in entrepreneurship.

All over the world, the future of work and work creation include the concept of entrepreneurial behaviour. In South Africa too, entrepreneurial behaviour is seen as a means of creating more jobs and the desired increase in productivity. This entrepreneurial behaviour should contribute towards reaching the 2014 Millennium development goals. See the websites in Activity 1.

PCAR03X, Unit 5, Activity 1

  1. Skim through these websites for the millennium development goals detailed in them:  http://ddp-ext.worldbank.org/ext/GMIS/home.do?siteId=2 and http://www1.oecd.org/dac/ictcd/docs/otherdocs/OtherDAC_MDGs.pdf.
  2. As we can see in www.gapminder.org (refer back to PCAR02W Unit 4) we have significant challenges to implement the 2014 Millennium development goals in South Africa.  Remember to use this information to create an urgency and action with your local resources and career seeker clients!
  3. List the eight 2014 Millennium development goals from the first two sites above.
  4. Find the life expectancy in South Africa on Gapminder.
  5. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  6. Record your experiences from completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

We expand entrepreneurship by adding entrepreneurial behaviours, otherwise called “enterprise living”, as a part of the solution. It means we are acquiring and creating a culture of urgency, action, entrepreneurial behaviour and a high work ethic.

Let us get the web sites where we can explain to career seekers what it is all about and create urgency for action with them.

5.2 WHAT IS ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR?

PCAR03X, Unit 5, Activity 2

  1. Skim through these web sites for three definitions of intrapreneur and three definitions of entrepreneurs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entrepreneurhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intrapreneurshiphttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entrepreneurship and http://africa.smetoolkit.org/index.jsp?locale=1
  2. We include many local sites in PCAR04X Unit 1.
  3. Discuss your ideas about, intrapreneurs and entrepreneurs as a basis for responsible career choices, with your study colleagues, family or friends. Once you have done this, continue with the written tasks.
  4. Write the three definitions, which you best understand and with which you identify. Do this for both entrepreneurial behaviour and for entrepreneurship. Highlight the definition of each concept which you prefer. Explain in two sentences why you chose each one of these two definitions.
  5. Explain at least one difference between the two definitions
  6. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  7. Record your experiences from completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

  1. I am sure this was a lot of new information and thoughts. I hope you find it as exciting as we did when we collated the information for you. Can you see that the competencies required for successful careers, services and businesses are almost the same? The level of responsibility, risk and return is higher in owner businesses. Live the entrepreneurial behaviour processes!  You will then be successful in the value you will add to others, in careers, services and businesses.
  2. The purpose is to clarify the difference between the usual view regarding entrepreneurship and the idea of entrepreneurship as proposed in the PCAR. This will help your career seeker clients to understand entrepreneurial thinking. It will emphasise why most people can become entrepreneurial thinkers with knowledge and support from experts in the field. However, this can only happen once people accept the challenge to behave in an entrepreneurial manner.

5.3 ENTREPRENEURIAL RESOURCES AND BEHAVIOUR IN SOUTH AFRICA AND WORLD WIDE

You will need to have a look at what the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) report says about entrepreneurial habits and the gaps found within South Africans presently. Jeffry A Timmons is a recognized guru on Entrepreneurship with many books used by many Universities in South Africa to teach Entrepreneurship. Do the following activity to get more information about these books.

Type “Timmons entrepreneurship information” into Google and choose South African web sites. From Timmons’ site, you will get solid information regarding the development of entrepreneurial behaviour. People should remember that gaining knowledge while working, even without pay, is cheaper than learning on your own. Such entrepreneurial behaviours or habits can determine career seekers’ level of success in a business or career. This means that career seekers should start working without pay in order to learn from existing businesses. It might mean that career seekers must work only to gain more knowledge and that only at a later stage, they might earn money. Remember to include the knowledge you gain from being involved with successful people when you calculate a career seekers’ wage. The wage itself might have a low rand value, but the knowledge you gain cannot be calculated in terms of money. Browse through newspapers to find out what training courses cost and you will realise how solid this argument is.  You will be able to apply the knowledge for the rest of your work life and in that manner; you will receive “backpay” many times over.

A great deal is being done in South Africa to promote entrepreneurial behaviour.  The government and business have done everything that can be expected of them and they are still trying to do more. It is now up to each of us to take action in our homes and geographical communities. In the following section, attention is given to three important actions to promote entrepreneurship (which includes entrepreneurial behaviour, entrepreneurial thinking and entrepreneurial habits). It is important to think about these three actions and apply them within the context of your own community.

Another entrepreneurial possibility of which you as a career guidance practitioner should be aware of, are franchise opportunities.  Franchising (from the French for honesty or freedom) is simply where you use a method of doing business wherein a franchisor licenses trademarks and tried and proven methods of doing business.  In exchange, the franchisee (the person to whom the permission has been given to use these “trade secrets”, has to make a a recurring payment which is usually a fixed percentage of gross sales or gross profits as well as the annual fees. Good examples of franchised businesses are MacDonalds / B P garages / Scooters Pizzas / etc.  Various tangibles (do you remember that all Wimpies have the same furniture and layout inside?) and intangibles such as national or international advertising (you can recognise the logo in foreign countries too). Training and other support services (for instance regular inspection of kitchens and service standards) are commonly made available by the franchisor, and may indeed be required by the franchisor, who generally requires audited books, and may subject the franchisee or the outlet to periodic and surprise spot checks. Failure of such tests typically involves non-renewal or cancellation of franchise rights.

A business operated under a franchise arrangement is often called a chain store, franchise outlet, or simply franchise.  Read more about franchising on wikipedia.

We list a set of web sites regarding entrepreneurship and franchises to get you and the career seeker started. Follow the links on these web sites to find more resources for you and your career seekers to use. Don’t be disheartened if you bump into difficult web sites. Be aware that some sites are challenging. The processes and required criteria can be tough and even unattainable at a beginner level. (Remember how you battled to ride a bicycle when you were young?) Rather focus on working your way up. Do however take the time to familiarize yourself with these sites, and sift out the ones you can use for future reference.

Assistance in acquiring a FRANCHISED business

Assistance in buying franchises that hold relation with your interests and strengths is also available on the web, from banks and many local businesses near to you.

Not everybody who applies for a franchise licence is given one. Why not? The key is to be awarded the privilege to use a well-known name is your personal ability to run such a venture. You need to prove that you have the competencies required to run one!

  • How can you connect to the franchising world? Find your local franchising body. This is the official web site of the Franchise Association. All you or your career seeker client will ever need to know about franchising and franchises is here.
  • Every bank has franchising assistance. Assist the career seeker to contact the bank of their preference for information.
  • Wikipedia has a clear definition and history of the franchising industry.
  • Access the Small Business Development Agency.

INTERNATIONAL SITES for entrepreneurial career seekers to use

  • Business knowledge and support
  • Our Google search presented too many sites to be included here, so go look at more sites and remember that the number of sites keep growing and the content is updated regularly.

LOCAL INFORMATION, SUPPORT AND TRAINING SITES WITH MANY LINKS

Get your client started with RESOURCES:

  • Department of trade and industry
  • Small business development agency
  • Department of Labour gives support and Learnerships
  • The International Labour Organization supports programs with Chamsa
  • Skills portal has the best summary of Learnerships

How will this help you?

Your client can do the following:

  • The sites above and other specific sites contain opportunities for you and your career seekers.
  • Search for your interest in work and industry in locations closest to you or even internationally.
  • Look for franchises and other organized opportunities. The career seeker can gain competencies by working in a franchise of his/her choice.  Type “franchise” into Google and help your career seeker client find what they need to fit there personal exploration and discoveries from PCAR01V.
  • Business and career opportunities
  • Sample career and enterprise access

Call centre agents and self-training.

Become competent in English spelling and pronunciation and typing skills, Also know your country and its cities. These are basic skills for a call centre operator (and many other jobs). Once you are qualified, you can even work from home or use your skills as a stepping-stone towards the career you really want.

Tourism support, marketing and self-training

Become proficient in English communication and the Internet.  Become knowledgeable about the tourist attractions and tour companies.  Then you can invite tourists to South Africa in partnership with the tourist attractions and tour companies and be part of their experience. Career seekers can use the Internet and local relationships as you did in tutorial letters PCAR01V/102/2007 and PCAR01V/103/2007 to make use of these opportunities.

Get your client started with BUSINESS RESOURCES

  • Encourage people to contribute to business chambers and existing businesses while they learn.
  • Look at the member organizations. Each one has chambers in most places in South Africa and their members can provide assistance to the career seeker. We recommend that you go to a meeting with the local chambers to announce your services and gain access to resources for your future clients.
  • Banks: Have a look at various bank websites and familiarize yourself with the online services that they offer. Let the career seeker fully utilize these banking services – they are often available for free!
  • Financial services industry: Contact local representatives of large financial institutions. They have much in resources, relationships and opportunities for access to business. The industry needs your clients for their business.

5.4 GET STARTED WITH ENTREPRENEURIAL PROJECTS

Remember that the reason there is such a big emphasis on entrepreneurial (thinking, behaviour, habits, resources and projects) is to empower you to be able to guide career seekers to a new way of living. In spite of there being many jobs available (go to a local job placement agency and ask them how many jobs they are trying to fill), your career seekers might find it better to develop the skills which they already possess by developing themselves into entrepreneurs, than re-skilling themselves to be suitable for existing jobs. The choice is theirs.

Your objective is to be a catalyst for flow of information, resources, opportunity access from existing programs to your constituency. Not to become an entrepreneurship trainer.

Help people get started using their current environment to take the initiative and action. Consider a possible ordinary day for yourself and the career seeker and ask:

  • Do you buy your clothes, have them sewn or sew them yourself?
  • Do you buy your food, or do you grow it?
  • Do you prepare your own food, or do you pay somebody else to do it?
  • Can you bake a cake?  On the other hand, would you prefer to buy a “flop proof”, ready-made one?
  • Who looks after your children, your animals, and the old people in your family?  Do you sometimes need a part-time babysitter?
  • When you travel, do you use your own car, hired transport, public transport?

You and the career seeker can do these and many other things for yourself and others. This is how you learn about service, contribution and self-development.

However, it is also simply clever and good marketing for your own personal career guidance services as career guidance practitioner when you introduce programmes into your own community. You can use school and university projects to access people and resources in your communities. Add great value to the educational programmes which schools and universities offer and in doing so gain powerful marketing for your career guidance practice.

We list a few well-known types of projects and activities below. These well-established projects make it easier for you to attract resources (such as financial assistance, training, networking, counselling, mentoring and advice). You might even be paid for the successful integration of you career seeking clients into the existing job market (this is the principle on which job placement agencies work). The results you achieve will speak for themselves. You can learn much more from established projects than from starting new ones.

  • SIFE of University Students in Free Enterprise helps their local communities. Find the South African SIFE students and contact them to offer your personal skills and your business as career guidance practitioner as a potential part of one of their projects.
  • Business projects for schools are covered in your next activity.
  • Work projects for school learners
  • Work projects for people at home.
  • An implementation in America we can learn from.
  • http://www.sba.gov/gopher/Business-Development/Success-Series/Vol6/entre.txt
  • Many organisations, NGOs (non-governmental organisations), universities, colleges, technicians, technical colleges, and private persons offer courses in how to start a business and how to keep it running at a profit. They also offer financial assistance, training, networking, counselling, mentoring and advice. (Some of these courses are presented in South African schools).
  • You will also find valuable information in the printed media. This means that you have to read your local newspapers. Most papers now have a section on small business and careers. A good source to consult is the weekly newspaper job finder “your national employment guide.” this newspaper focuses on jobs, careers, labour law articles, small business opportunities and self-employment opportunities.

5.5 WHAT STUDENTS SAY ABOUT ENTREPRENEURSHIP PROGRAMMES

You need to be aware and allow your clients to become aware of the many opportunities and the local and international resources that are available. Leaders and teachers in schools become aware of how they can earn more money while teaching the learners about enterprise projects. Use these projects to help local leaders raise the money. Perhaps you can explain to them that you need a small percentage of the raised funds, which reflects the proportion of the contribution you made. However, it might be better to first practice you personal skills without such a request.

PCAR03X, Unit 5, Activity 3

  1. Type “What students say about entrepreneurship” into Google search and choose two of the sites that you like and say why you liked them more than you liked some of the others.
  2. Type “School going entrepreneur’s projects” into Google search and choose two of the sites that you like and say why you like.  An example we chose is
  3. Enterprise Northland have a complete program that you can learn from for local projects.  You may even ask them for help.
  4. Look at Life Long Learners and use the information to encourage similar local projects.
  5. Can you encourage Life Long Learner attitudes?
  6. Discuss your ideas on enterprise or entrepreneurial programs at school with people already involved like the teachers and also discuss how such a project can grow your business while you help their learners and the school.
  7. For the written part of this activity, do the following:
  • Can you see how to implement such projects locally? If “yes”, state why. If “no” state why not.
  • Which local projects can you share with others? Can you put the local project on a WEBLOG (The same kind of blog you created for yourself in tutorial letter PCAR01V/102/2007)?

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.

Record your experiences from completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.

Here is some feedback from people who have dared to develop their entrepreneurial behaviour, thinking, habits, resources and projects:

Lional Brits ( Grade 7) “I’m glad I got the opportunity to start my own business.”

The Bafanas (four youths from Umbonambi) “We learnt how to voice our opinions, pool our ideas and use all our sources. Forward the entrepreneurs programme.”

Jafta Moloi (20 ) “The programme must be supported and it has got to spread around South Africa to create successful entrepreneurs of the future.”

Mpho, who was failing in maths, realised the importance of the subject when he started buying and selling T-shirts.

Siphiwe thought that buying something for $5 and selling it for $10 was like dealing in drugs – illegal. Up until then he was not aware that there is joy in serving others and making a margin for your effort.

These are examples that entrepreneurship educators provided of the experiences of learners who had been exposed to entrepreneurship programmes.  (Source: The International Entrepreneurship Education Forum held in New Mexico, 1995.)

School learner projects from across the world are brought to you via the Internet.  You can also take what you learn worldwide and earn a trip to any destination in the world as others have done working from incentives for doing just this! Students from the University of Pretoria were sponsored to recently attended www.MIT100K.org meetings in Norway. This meant that they did not have to pay anything!  Apply on your own selected web sites and see what can happen when you align yourself with existing programs through being useful to them and to be noticed.

Feedback:

Small services such as delivering newspapers, washing cars, growing and/selling vegetables might be some of the business ideas that you might find around student entrepreneurs.

Keep on consulting the web to find knowledge, resources and opportunities. Become useful to the people and they will notice you.

We hope that this gives you some food for thought.

5.6 CONCLUSION

We challenge you to encourage people to use enterprise living, entrepreneurial behaviour, entrepreneurial thinking, entrepreneurial resources and entrepreneurial projects in all careers. Help people get connected to start careers and businesses.

In short, become entrepreneurial yourself.

In this unit, you gained information on how to help your career seeker clients to become aware of the opportunities to be entrepreneurial in growing careers and businesses. We showed how most people could use entrepreneurial behaviour while accessing knowledge, resources, and opportunities. We highlighted some of the processes to implement in your work life and your career seeker clients’ work lives.

Key questions

  • How do we uncover gaps in relationships and make plans to bridge them?
  • What is sociometry with regards to choosing relationships or networks for success?
  • What are social networks?
  • How do we organise sociometric and social networks to understand our choice of relationships?
  • What are the limitations of sociometric data?

4.1 INTRODUCTION

By now the career seeker, who is your client, should be aware of his/her opportunities and preferences.  The career seeker should also by now be able to apply the career exploration, discovery and communication processes.

Consider the following case study:

Mpho is considering a midlife career change to grow his contribution to society and earn more. He is struggling to integrate new experiences, interests and relationships.  He needs to build a network consisting of experienced people so that he can learn from them.  Mpho also needs to discover the gaps in the areas of his relationships and make plans and take action to bridge them. We can also state this differently: How do we know what our strengths in relationships are and how can we make plans to grow and apply them?

Mpho visits you as his career guidance practitioner to gain more insight. Using sociometry you are able to help Mpho answer this question: How can he make and apply plans regarding the growth and application of his own strengths in developing required relationships?

4.2 WHAT USE DO SOCIOMETRY AND SOCIAL NETWORKS HAVE FOR CAREER SEEKERS?

Sociometry and social networks are techniques used to explore and become aware of interpersonal relationships throughout existing and new networks. You need to explore the participation of your client in networks and gain insight into current networks through a sociogram.  You might establish that your client

  • does not have insight into the functioning of members in a network
  • does not realise the importance of having access to a network
  • has access to a network/s, but does not utilise this access in his/her favour.

Members of networks use personal data regarding themselves and the purpose of the network to grow their relationships required for their work or goals. PCAR01V/102/2008 and PCAR01V/103/2008 contain tools like the Johari window, which can be used to assess the functioning of the individual within networks. This is to say that they know in which aspect of the group they will function best, be it writing, public speaking, presenting, organising etc. This knowledge can be applied to grow intra personal knowledge and facilitate introspection into your relationships.

Remember that the sociometric and social network processes raise your awareness of your current relationships, why you maintain them and what relationships you require for real success. One of the outcomes of an understanding of the importance of social networks is to build relationships and networks with people of your choice and to learn from them while you share your personal resources (knowledge, experience and values) with them. In this manner, you add value to them, gain from them and create a win-win situation.

Support your preferences of work and industry (selected in PCAR01V) by networking in the next modules. In this unit, we heighten your awareness of current links and networks. You must develop your personal development plan to access and contribute to networks locally, nationally and internationally.

Choose the people you associate with carefully. Partake in activities that will allow you to extend your network in your desired field. This includes the real life projects of which you choose to be a part. These relationships are like capital for future choices and productivity. People in your network are developed through deliberate choice by using your specific traits and preferences. These are principles you should apply throughout your career. Opportunity comes with people and this will help you gain access to both.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 1

  1. Open http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociometry http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_networking_websites
  2. Study the sociometric principles and identify how you would use them to increase your levels of success and grow your network.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search extensively to learn more about the subject. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Discuss with your study colleagues, since each person grows relationships differently!
  5. Useful Sociometric tools can be applied widely in relationship building.
  6. Answer the following:
  • Where and how can you use networking which is aligned with your choices? (Refer to PCAR 01V).
  • How would you cultivate relationships differently from the manner in which your existing work group does? Write down two specific points.
  • Study http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_world_phenomenon and general networking. Investigate the exploration and discoveries of PCAR01V and explore interviews more widely. Discuss your findings with your study group. Practise your newly found skills on them. By doing this you will develop the skills required for effective networking and you will also be able to help your client more effectively.

Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

 

 

 

Feedback:

On completion of the above task you will begin to understand the importance and value of a network. Networking opens up doors and opportunities that would otherwise be very difficult for you as an individual to access. By building networks you also develop trust relationships and acquire other people’s trusted networks. Your entry and access to people who can contribute to your personal growth, therefore increases exponentially.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 2

  1. Refer to your own information from your gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the candidate and use your new awareness of social networks to become aware of relationships (existing and required). How would you grow one new relationship that will further your career options while growing awareness of interests, talents, aptitude, industry exposure and work choice?
  3. Write down an open and a closed question that will help you establish how your client can use sociometric principles and networking to grow his/her network. When your client uses these questions, he/she will become aware of the benefits that go with a wide network and good social relationships. .
  4. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

 

Feedback:

Each person cultivates relationships differently. Be aware of the differences in your group. All of us have our preferences in how we like to build and maintain relationships e.g. meeting up with people at social gatherings for a drink or two or spending time with the people at your sports club or at the church. All of these are examples of places you can meet people, build relationships and form networks. Add value to others and they will introduce you to people you did not know before who can add value to you.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 3

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareer Book gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the Facilitator and guide the candidate to use his/her new awareness of social networks to become aware of relationships (existing and required).   How would you help the candidate to cultivate one new relationship that will further his/her career options while exploring interests, talents, aptitude, industry exposure and work choice?
  3. Where applicable use Dictionary, Wikipedia or a Google search to clarify words and concepts. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. New information gets you and your client thinking and creates an awareness of where you are.
  4. Write down how you facilitated the networking process to grow the career seeker’s current network to one that is closer to the one needed for success. This will include matching aspects such as interests, talents, aptitude, and industry exposure as well as work choice.
  5. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

Be aware that the new networks will be limited by current knowledge and abilities to communicate.  Communication skills from PCAR01V/102/2008 and PCAR01V/103/2008 must be emphasised all the time. Let the career seekers emphasise The Johari Window and Transactional Analysis, as you have used them to grow your awareness, to gain knowledge about yourself and to find words to describe that knowledge.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 4

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareer Book gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the Observer while the facilitator in your study group guides the candidate to use his/her new awareness of social networks to become aware of relationships (existing and required).Take note of how people will interact and grow their interpersonal network differently according to their different interests, talents, aptitude, industry exposure and work choice. Observe these differences and remember that you can apply what you witness in your own context and experience as a Facilitator and Candidate.
  3. Where applicable, use Dictionary, Wikipedia or a Google search to clarify words and concepts.  The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Write down how you observed and gave feedback during networking with your current and required networks. Also write at least one personal lesson you learned from the experience that you can reapply when building your own and your future client’s networks.
  5. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Feedback:

Be aware that the new networks will be limited by current knowledge and abilities to communicate. Communication skills from PCAR01V/102/2008 and PCAR01V/103/2008 must be emphasised all the time. The career seekers will need practise to develop the ability to effectively communicate their aptitudes and talents to prospective employers and develop their career development and support network successfully.

4.3 SUMMARY

In this unit we discussed sociometrics and social networks to become aware of choices about how to grow people in our networks as a medium to contribute to others. Contributions to others are mostly characterised by reciprocity: what you do to others, they do to you. You never require permission to make contributions to others. Contribution earns you and your clients access to resources and opportunities as explained in PCAR03X (Module 3).

In PCAR01V, Unit 4, we examined the use of networking to determine required access to industries and work skills. The practical application of sociometrics and social networks in PCAR03X will require you to refer back to this module. Always refer to relevant local and international websites, compare, and learn from the ones you used in this course and the ones you will use in the future.