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3.1 Introduction

You have experienced the processes on how to access people with resources and existing infrastructures in PCAR04Y.  You can now use the knowledge, access, resources and relationships that you gained to prepare for your career guidance workshop.

3.2 Preparation

What is the goal of your workshop and limited exhibition?

You want to reach everyone in your community through their existing social networks. The workshops will reach interested people within the community and potential career seekers and employers. You will want to offer and even sell your service and advertise your collaborators’ services to both career seekers and employers alike.

So, who is invited, where do you hold it, and what do you do?  All of these questions will be answered in this section.

3.2.1 Who is invited?

Remember to keep it small to complete your Career guidance course. In practice, you will invite the full list of people.  Right now, you simply want to prove the concept and experience by executing the task.

In practice, you will invite the following people: Potential employers and future employees.  All the people in the career seekers’ support structures must be informed and possibly meet each other to expand their worlds and support each other into work access.  Remember the support is sustained by the Career Guide Practitioner’s assistance (with the people in the career seekers support infrastructure) and the Internet (for access to the chosen industries and work within the industry).  So whom can you invite?

  1. Learners, Career seekers and career growers
  2. The career seeker’s support infrastructure in interest groups, family, and friends (Remember that the workshop forms them into interest groups.)
  3. Anyone in the community involved in career guidance: teachers, social workers, community development workers.  They form part of the support infrastructure.
  4. Any contributing and interested business people who need more employees or branding opportunities in the future:  The Internet makes businesses and resources accessible to the people in your workshops!  Publish your workshops on the web.  Use the web presence to inform, invite, and contact the relevant industries, work associations and businesses.
  5. People in associations affiliated with career guidance and job placement services who want to grow their organizations.  Each industry and job category has them.  Connect the learners, career seekers and career growers to them. Help them grow and they will help you.

For this assignment, you can invite the following people:

  1. Start with captive audiences in schools and other interested parties.  Contact your local school’s School Governing Body (SGB). They could already be aware of you and what services you bring from the contact you made in PCAR04Y.  A grade 11 class might be the ideal audience.  Anyone involved with this group like the teachers and interested parents should be invited.
  2. Is there a group that the business chamber or committee would like you to present to?  Use this group and include their family and friends.

3.2.2 Who will help?

Let us look at your goal for the workshop one more time:  Simply connect the learners, career seekers, career growers and people in their support structures to relevant industry associations, businesses and working people.  Can you see that the Business Chambers and committee members will be required, within reason, to support and assist the career seekers on their way? If you found that your goals overlap with theirs, and you can hold a workshop for their people, they will most likely assist you in the planning of this workshop and limited exhibition. You can always contact and communicate with these people via the internet and email.

You might not have the infrastructure, financial resources or the experience in events planning. It is therefore advisable to partake in existing events of the local business chambers, committees and human resource companies.  Make use of the value exchange model (refer to workbook slides) and help them with their goals and in the process gain the necessary experience, resources and knowledge. On the other hand you can also use the facilities at your local school or churches while in collaboration with the business chambers and committee.

3.2.3 Who wants to display and speak at your workshop and limited exhibitions?

Any person, institution, business or committee that can help you as career guide or your career seeker clients in their future careers can display at your exhibition.  Again, the committee and business chamber should be able to assist you with this. They want to be there to promote themselves and their organizations. It is a fair exchange of value with both parties gaining value.

3.2.4 How to use the slide set for the workshop

We have provided you with two presentation slide sets, one for when presenting to business chambers or committees and another for presenting a workshop with potential career seeker clients.  Please find “The Career Workshop Slide Presentation”.  on your CD.  For this Assignment, you are now going to use this set of slides.

Remember, you will present this workshop to other interested people like learners, career seekers and career growers in similar workshops. Again, try working your experiences from the course into your workshop slides.  For a successful workshop, you must be comfortable with the material. Improve on, and modify the slides until you are comfortable with using it for the workshop!  Edit the slide set we gave you the same as you did in PCAR04Y Unit 4.  Test the changes with the expert people you now know.

This presentation consists of the following three things:

  1. A slide set called “The Career Workshop Slide Presentation”.  Use this slide set for the assignment in this module.
  2. A slide set called “The Workbook guide”.
  3. A Word document called “The Tutor-book Guide”.
  • The Tutor-book guide contains the two slide presentations.  This guide is to be used and consulted, again in preparation of your Workshop in this module.
  • There is a vast amount of information in this section and it serves as an encapsulated and structured summary of the course for you to refer to and use when presenting your experiences and services to potential clients.
  • Each page in this document correlates with the slides in ‘The Career Workshop Slide Presentation”

This guide is to be printed and given to the people you present to.  The top part of the slides is the actual slide that you present. The bottom notes part has blank spaces for them to make notes on and questions to answer.  They can take this handout home.  The purpose of such a handout is to facilitate interaction in your workshop and to have them take something home to mull over.  The career seeker can discuss it with their family / friends to obtain support and spread the message.

These slides have much more information on for your audience to take home and discuss with their family and friends.  Unlike the presentation, this is a workshop and you will want to facilitate and encourage a lot of audience participation.

3.3 Assignment 01

PCAR053, Unit 3, Assignment 01

Present a workshop and limited exhibition

  1. Send invitations for your workshop, preferably via email or cell phone SMS.  The committee and/or business chamber, that you have presented to in the previous assignment, can be of assistance in finding interested people.  However, you can make use of any group or person that you have worked with during this course.  Another option is to contact your local school’s School Generating Body and start your workshop from there.
  2. Prepare your workshop with the people discussed in section 3.2.2.  Post your slide set on your Blog!
  3. Invite the people that you connected with during your course to display and advertise at your workshop.  Make sure that you have the necessary space and tools that they might need for such an exhibition.
  4. Use your prepared slides in the workshop as discussed in the previous unit.  Print the workbook slides and hand it out to your audience to make notes on and take home.
  5. Remember, your goal for these sessions is to help career seekers find their areas of interest in work & industry and possibly guide them to form interest groups to visit the industry / company of their interest and choice.
  6. It is now up to you to present your Workshop to your audience.  Remember to incorporate the applicable experiences and to include how you as individual learnt from the course and how these lessons can help the audience master basic competencies in preparation for career and personal growth.
  7. Take photos of the workshop and publish it on your Blog.  If you have the resources, and the capacity it is optional to record your workshop and publish it on Blog.  This is not only an excellent marketing for your own services, but also a way for us to see how you have grown!
  8. Get the email addresses of your audience and send your online careers exhibition link to them.   Remember that they might be your future clients, so keep them updated on your services.

3.4 Conclusion

Refer back to PCAR01V Unit 6 and Unit 7.  Do you remember why you had to keep a MiCareer Book?  It is meant to show the skills and competencies that you have developed during this course and it also depicts what you can do in practical terms for career seekers and students.  Now you have to communicate this information.  Select what you want to communicate and work it into your Blog.  Remember that this is your marketing tool.  Make sure that you communicate your opportunities, preferences, skills and experiences.

In order to pass PCAR053 you will need to submit the Internet link for your Blog.  Submit your project to Unisa in the correct manner as you have been requested to do in PCAR01V/101/2008.  Remember to include photos and details of your workshop (the place, people who attended, people who helped and advertised there) in your Blog.  This is our verification process, as we need to know that the work you do in PCAR has added value to your community.  After all – we can supply you with the theoretical guidelines, but you are the one who has to make things happen in your own community!

In this unit, you have presented the workshop with a small, limited exhibition and shared your experiences with career seekers and interested community members.  Remember, as in the previous assignment (of PCAR04Y), the careers workshop with a limited exhibition will start growing your career guidance network and future career or even business.  We congratulate you on moving on to the next assignment (PCAR053, Unit 4) where you will present your online careers exhibition.

Key questions

  • Why is a job-shadowing contract necessary?
  • What is in a job-shadowing contract?
  • How do you become useful in the workplace?
  • What is a Learnership?

2.1 Introduction

As career guide, you must show prospective job seekers how they can go to work with people who are successful in their area of interest. Now each one can get work experience on their CV.  The same goes for when the career seeker is already working and wants to gain more skills. They must do their own work quickly, come to an agreement with their supervisor and do work with the person they want to learn from.  You have already covered a bit on workplace experience in PCAR04Y, Unit 3.3, so you understand why workplace experience is so important.

The working person that the career seeker wants to learn from does not always know what is expected of them or they are not in the possession of mentoring skills.  You will be provided with some guidelines on writing a short letter that will help the working person in this regard.  Read about this in the next section.

Your goal is to tutor the career seeker on how to be useful in order to learn and gain experience. The career seeker will become useful by experiencing observing, reflecting and then practicing through doing, under tutelage of the working person.  If you are at all unsure what volunteering, reflecting and observing entails please use and for further information. There is a brief summary in Section 2.3.

Most people who go shadowing can be paid when they do a good job and the company decides to pay for work done. Remind the career seekers to inform their supervisors and ask advice from people around them. It will increase the learning experience and also increase the chances of them getting paid. Many should gain employment as part of Learnerships since the people at the company know the person and propose or support their application.  We will discuss Learnerships in Section 2.4.

PCAR053, Unit 2, Activity 1

  1. Look at the following concepts on the Internet:
  2. A total high school program as on Wikipedia
  3. Extern-ship (or a experiential learning activity) There are externships examples for most careers on the web. In an externship, you go to work with people, to gain work skills in an informal way.
  4. Search the web for suitable examples for your area or the specific career seeker.
  5. Give two examples on your Career library!
  6. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries on your Blog.
  7. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.


The web gives access to many of these examples. The originators of these programs may even communicate directly with you on your request. Expand your access to resources by joining these web sites where they allow you to do so.

Click on the following link to view a brief story of another career seeker. Listen to Linky, a Siwelane-Community Activist. She became involved in a skills development project that helped her and her daughter on their career paths.

2.2 The job-shadowing contract

We offer some sample clauses to get the career seekers and career growers going with regards to requesting work access.

  • I am in a career access and growth program. The jobs and the economy grow as more people get productive. I would like to join the productive people like you and help grow my family, community, and country.
  • I want to shadow you at work to gain work experience.
  • I commit to help where I can and do as I am told.
  • I understand that this is not employment or an interview in any way.
  • I am exchanging value with you and can do other tasks for you in exchange for observing and learning.
  • I commit to share with others directly and on the web where practical what and how I learned. It grows the online career library for the whole country.
  • Would you please help me to reflect what I observed to ensure that I grasp and understand what I learn?
  • I am a mentee who drives my learning processes. As mentor, you should benefit from the exchange since I learn from you. I compensate you by the value exchange method. We do it everyday at home.
  • Inform supervisors and Human resources that you are shadowing.

PCAR053, Unit 2, Activity 2

  1. Discuss the above clauses of a possible contract with career seekers and career growers. Ensure they can explain their objectives with confidence.
  2. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries on your Blog.
  3. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.


A short letter to the working person will help him/her and the career seeker or grower. Work these clauses into the letter.  This will serve as a possible contract.  Clear communications and setting out of rules will prevent the person being shadowed from feeling threatened or stolen from. Both parties know why they are there and both know their place. This decreases the room for misunderstanding and disappointment.

2.3 Observation, reflection and practice

Ask the career seeker to remember their exploration and observations from their own personality traits in PCAR01V Unit 2 and careers in PCAR01V Unit 6.  Ask them to apply the same process of exploration and observation during job shadowing.  Help the career seekers / growers to continue exploring and discovering their strengths and weaknesses.  The job shadowing is an ideal opportunity for that. See Tutorial letter PCAR01V/103/2008

Observe how people in the workplace do their work, and simply mimic them to practice the same skills.  This way you will learn new skills very fast.

2.4 Learnerships

Go to SAQA’s website for a definition of and information on Learnerships.

SAQA’s mission is to ensure the development and implementation of a National Qualifications Framework (NQF) which contributes to the full development of each learner and to the social and economic development of the nation at large. The learnership campaign is therefore one of the processes that will ensure that SAQA’s commitment is seen to be a vital component of learnerships now and in the future.

Learnerships are defined as the new professional and vocational education and training programmes. They combine theory and practice and culminate in a qualification that is registered on the NQF. A person who successfully completes a learnership will have a qualification that signals occupational competence and which is recognised throughout the country.

To read more on SAQA’s website go to the “focus area” drop down menu and click on learnerships.

Also, read all about learnerships on the skills portal.

Scroll down to the table called: Learnerships: The A to Z. The following topics are covered there:
What is a learnership?
What makes a learnership different?
What are the principles of learnerships?
How is a learnership program developed?
How are learnerships implemented?
How are learnerships financed?
How are learnerships delivered?
How are learnerships assessed?
A to Z courtesy of CPT Learnership Development

Find any learnership on The Skills Portal’s online learnerships database.

You will notice that a learnership can only be done through a specific SETA.  And all of the SETA’s has their way of doing a learnership.  That is why you must contact the specific SETA applicable to your career seeker, who is interested in a learnership.  For example, if your career seeker is interested in becoming a food technologist, they will find a suitable learnership with the Foodbev setaThe service seta also has a very good explanation on learnerships.

To find all the SETA’s, go back to and click on the “Accredited Education & Training Quality Assurance bodies” button on the left of the screen.  You will now find all the names of the SETA’s and links to their websites.

PCAR053, Unit 2, Activity 3

  1. Study the above websites on learnerships.  Take one of your career seekers and see if you can find a learnership for that person.
  2. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries on your Blog.
  3. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.


Try staying up to date with news about skills development and the service seta’s on The Skills Portal home page.  The more you read about this topic the easier it will become to understand.  The day that you need to help a career seeker with learnerships, you can go and speak to the specific SETA.  They will give you good guidelines on what to do and where to go!  Remember, that is what they are there for, so feel free to make use of that service!

2.6 Conclusion

In this unit, you have learnt how the career seeker can benefit from doing some form of job shadowing.  By just observing experts in the workplace, mimicking them and practicing what you see, you can learn a lot.  Motivate your career seeker to keep on moving and speaking to experts.  This is the only way they will find their passion and find resources to live their passion.

We congratulate you on moving on to the next unit where you share your experiences with career seekers and interested community members, in the workshop.  Remember, as in the previous assignment (of Module 4), the workshop contact will start growing your career guidance network and future business.

You earn according to a self-driven identified and claimed results.

Basic principles

Investment in your effort, growth, team, etc.

Direct contribution paid when the money is in.

Longer term impact less cost of getting the results

Apply eclectic innovation and delivery

Grow core capacity

Deliver projects

Develop suppliers.

Develop clients.

Claim your compensation

The production loop elements included choosing, planning, identifying, delivering and claiming.

To identify and claim your slice of the results is an enriching experience in many ways. You learn what others think and you get more money!

Use the team help processes as in the performance management system of Next S. (Ask for the performance review process from Next S human development.)

Gather information:

You gather the information similar to a practical “Portfolio of evidence”.

It is discussed in the team, agreement is reached and the pie is sliced. The money is paid. CONCLUDED!

In case of differences we grow even faster by getting external views and expertise. The external uninvolved person listens, integrates to interactively give a considered solution. Typically we agree at this time.  CONCLUDED!

Should we not agree, each party get their own expertise, they listen and ask again. The three makes a final decision.  CONCLUDED!

While this exiting learning experience runs, we can already work together since the challenge moved external.

  • List your key personal passions and interests
  • Look at the past year and try to identify and describe definitive growth and performance.
  • What are your current task opportunities in the projects?
  • Industry fit: It is necessary to ascertain your position, task and goals in relation to the industry requirement.

Search for jobs that more or less describe what you are doing, or what you think you can do / want to do.  The jobs you find might be in a different industry, but the job description itself fits your skills and you can apply it in any industry.

  • Make use of jobsites
  • Put your CV up at a job search site or with a recruiter.  Go for interviews!  This is a great way of ascertaining your industry worth.
  • Especially if you are considering a mid life career change

Get the name of the position, the approximate earnings, the job responsibilities and requirements for the following questions.

4.1  Find out what growth areas are important to you (You will find this out only when you make contact).

What of the above industry related responsibilities are important for you and for growth in your job?  What other areas are important that is not mentioned in your newfound knowledge?  Discuss this with the group working with you and/or your team members.

4.2  Find out what skills and industry knowledge you need.  What are your gaps?  Make a list of the competencies and people you require.

4.3  What is your industry worth?

  • Actions:  How would your company compensate in money, personal growth and possible participation in greater returns?
  • Discuss with your co-workers and get their impressions and input.

1.1 Introduction

You have experienced the processes of accessing people with resources, existing infrastructures and relationships in PCAR04Y.  You should now apply this knowledge; and the access to these resources and relationships, to prepare for your final assignments in PCAR053.

1.2 Reflection on the previous assignment

In the assignments for PCAR04Y, you had to make contact with people from a business chamber and local school governing body (SGB).

Your goal with the business chamber was to use the relationships of their members to allow learners, career seekers and career growers access to working people for work experiences. The work experiences happen within the nearest business community. They also gain early access to an introduction of work via videos and information on the web.

You now know that they need to gain access to work exposure in their chosen industry and chosen work. They need to be in the workplace with working people, get their experiences onto their CV and get the CV signed off by the working people, local committee members and possibly some of the leaders.

PCAR053, Unit 1, Activity 1

Let us review the feedback of your presentation to the business chamber committee and members

  1. How can you ensure that the learners, career seekers and career growers now get access to working people to gain workplace exposure through the business chamber’s members?
  2. How will the business chamber committee and members be willing to take part in your workshops and limited exhibition?
  3. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries on your Blog.
  4. Record your answers and any other experiences from the presentation in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.
  5. Your goal for the presentation to the (SGB) was to see how career development overlaps with their objectives and how your services can provide students with knowledge and guidance enabling them to make informed and correct subject and study choices. Further more, can you be of use to other committees and groups like the community development workers (CDW’s)? And, how can they assist the career seekers and students to access local and municipal resources, knowledge and infrastructure?

PCAR053, Unit 1, Activity 2

Let us review the feedback of your presentation to the Student Governing Body (SGB) OR a selected local committee.

  1. How can your career seekers now get access to resources, knowledge and infrastructure for access to workplace experience?
  2. How will they pro-actively take part in and support your career guidance workshops with limited exhibitions?
  3. How, where and when will you be joining in their yearly activities and help them so that you can help more learners, career seekers and career growers?
  4. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries on your Blog.
  5. Record your answers and any other experiences from the presentation in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

1.3 The goal of the workshop and limited exhibition

The workshop, and limited exhibition supported by the online exhibition will reach interested people within the community, like potential career seekers and employers. You will want to offer and even sell your service and advertise your collaborators’ services to career seekers, placement agencies and employers alike.

What is the goal of your workshop, online exhibition and exhibition?  Your goal is to help career seekers find their areas of interest in work & industry, identify gaps with a plan to bridge these gaps and possibly guide them to form interest groups that can work together. These groups can visit the industry / company of their interest and choice.

Your final goal is therefore to organize common industry and work interest groups who can bridge gaps together as well as to visit companies. It is easier for groups than for an unsupported individual to gain this type of exposure and access!  It is almost impossible to describe the workplace to people with limited exposure to the workplace.  Why would the company say yes to such a group or community supported visit?


– Career workshops, limited/online exhibitions and exhibitions supported by the guidance process, are supported by local leaders.

– Groups are filtered to be interested in that industry/company or work.

– Students arrive with a supported and validated reason why they are interested in that job.

– Students gain an understanding of the gap between them and the work place and learn what actions to take (how to build skills to breach that gap).  This in turn ensures a better skilled and informed workforce for specific industries, saving them the costs of a wrong hire which can cost thousands of Rands.

– Experiences prepare them, excite them, and make them ready for Learnerships.

Can you see how you meet this final goal of integrating people with the workplace, with this workshop, online exhibition and limited physical exhibition?  This workshop (together with your exhibitions) hooks career seekers to opportunities, resources and you then act as the catalyst that hooks them to the world of work. They need to be supported at home and by people during this often-daunting new, unknown and scary access and exposure processes.

So, who is invited, where do you hold it, what do you do and how do you present an online exhibition? All of these questions are answered in this Module.

1.4 Overview of Module 5

This overview provides an overall view of what you will learn in this module.  You will find it useful to refer back to this page after completing each unit to see how the content fits into the bigger picture.

The suggested timetable for Unit 1 and Unit 2 is one week each.  Units 3 and 4 are suggested to be finished in 2 weeks each. If you keep to this schedule, you will have two weeks at the end of this module to complete your assignment.  That means that you will be able to finish the module within two months.


Here you will find a reflection on Module 4’s assignment and an overview of Module 5.


As career guide, you must show prospective job seekers how they can go to work with people who are working and are successful in their area of interest.  Your goal is to tutor the career seeker on how to be useful in order to learn and gain experience. The career seeker will become useful by experiencing observing, reflecting and then practice through doing under tutelage of the working person.

UNIT 3 ASSIGNMENT 01 – The workshop with a limited physical exhibition

For this assignment, you will need to present a career guidance workshop with a limited, physical exhibition.  You want to reach everyone in your community through their existing social networks. You will start with presenting the workshop to captive audiences in schools and other interested parties.

UNIT 4  ASSIGNMENT 02 – The online careers exhibition

For the assignment, you will need to present an online careers exhibition.  The outcome of this career exhibition is a continuous, online career exhibition where you use the websites of companies (as in your careers library) and your experiences with career seekers.  You can enhance the online exhibitions using Google Groups, Delicious library, and communicating Blogs.  People in rural areas can now be introduced to, and view factories or companies without traveling.  They visit the factory through the Internet, reading up on peer group experiences from around the world.

4.1 Introduction

In this Assignment, you will experience making contact with a Student Governing Body (SGB) and a business chamber’s committee members to gain access to school leavers and business opportunities. The committees provide access to career seekers and the requisite workplace experience to assist them and other career growers.  More importantly, these contacts will start growing your career guidance network for future business and your clientele.  You will repeat the same processes to access people in any committee, association or institution in future.

We provide you with two outlines for presentation slide sets, one for when presenting to business chambers or committees and another for presenting a workshop with potential career seeker clients.  Please find these presentations on your CD.

These presentations consist of the following three things:

1. A slide set called the “Business Chamber and Committees Slide Presentation”.

Use this slide set for your assignment in this Module.  We compiled this slide set for you as a guideline, however, it is up to you to use initiative to adapt, and personalize this presentation to fit your audience and your needs.  The next section will give you some guidelines on preparing for the presentation.

Make use of any free tutorial on the web or use a free online tutorial on how to use Microsoft PowerPoint.

2. A slide set called “The Career Workshop Slide Presentation”.

Use this slide set for your assignment in PCAR053.  There you will present a workshop to potential clients.  We mention this workshop now so that you can form and communicate all your needs and aims while presenting to the business chambers and committees.

3. A Word document called “The Tutor-book Guide”.

  • The Tutor-book guide contains the above two slide presentations.  This guide is to be used and consulted in preparation for your presentations in PCAR04Y and Workshop in PCAR053.
  • There is a vast amount of information in this section and it serves as an encapsulated and structured summary of the course for you to refer to and use when presenting your experiences and services to potential clients.
  • Each page in this document correlates with a slide in either the “Business Chamber and Committees Slide Presentation” or the “The Career Workshop Slide Presentation”.  There will be a page reference in the other two document slides to the pages in this document.
  • The top and bigger font part of the page is the actual slide.  It just contains a bit more information than its connected slide in the “Business Chamber and Committees Slide Presentation”.  In the bottom, smaller font part you will find tips on what to say as well as on what to do during the Presentation and Workshop.

Remember to include your experiences from the course in your presentation speech.  It is essential for a successful presentation that you are comfortable with the material.  It is therefore important for you to improve on and modify the slides until you are satisfied with presenting it as your own!

4.2 Presentation tips

This unit will aid you in preparing and presenting a great and informative presentation.  There are numerous skills and tips on what you should do, but remember, if you are comfortable with, and excited about your topic, the presentation will be easy. It is thus recommended that you work experiences from the course into your presentation speech.

General presentation skills

PCAR04Y, Unit 4, Activity 1

  1. How do you make an effective presentation?  Inspect the following websites concerning presentation skills.
  2. A list of all the components of a good presentation
  3. Dale Carnegie was an America writer and the developer of famous courses in self-improvement, salesmanship, corporate training, public speaking and interpersonal skills. Read about him on this Wikipedia page and follow the links to his books and the external links:
  4. Dorothy Carnegie is Dale Carnegie’s wife.  Find the summary of her book, from 1962, which is based on Dale Carnegie’s Public Speaking and Influencing Men in Business, from 1931, in this link:
  5. We encourage you to contact your local speech and drama teachers, social developers, activists and other trained people for feedback and input to grow your public speaking and presentation skills.  You will encourage your career seekers and growers to contact and work with local people. Remember that when in groups these expert resources are of great value per Rand spent!  Remember that you will also automatically access their social networks.
  6. Capture the tips that you found important and that you are going to use for your presentation.
  7. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book for the CV exercises and as part of your assignments.
  8. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference.

PowerPoint presentations

PCAR04Y, Unit 4, Activity 2

  1. Look at the following website on how to prepare presentation slides.  Work through the website while, keeping your presentations slides in mind.Now, you are ready to redo the slides with your own examples and information.  Make use of the slide tutorial to make a good slide set!
  2. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book for the CV exercises and as part of your assignments.
  3. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference.

4.4 Assignment 01

In this assignment, you will contact a business chamber or committee in your area and make a presentation.  Your goal is to use the relationships of business chamber members to access the business community.   In addition, you want to collaborate with business chamber members and their social networks to get your career seekers and growers in contact with businesses in the community along with the nearest major business communities.  The career seekers need workplace exposure.  They need to be in the workplace with working people and get their experiences signed off and verified when applying for further jobs. Use the Business Chamber and Committees Slide Presentation that you have modified.

PCAR04Y, Unit 4, Activity 3

  1. Choose any business chamber.  Make contact by any means e.g. email, and include the proof of contact in the assignment.  Explain to them what you are doing and what you are planning on doing with the information and links you obtain from them.  Find out from the business chamber what initiatives are already in motion and where your career seekers can join.  If you are stuck, refer back to PCAR04Y Unit 2 as a guide on what to ask and do.
  2. It is now up to you to present your cause to your audience. Remember to incorporate all your experiences and to include how you as individual learnt from the course and how these lessons can help the people in your community master basic competencies in preparation for career and personal growth.
  3. In the assignment, you must include their schedule of events with a letter from them acknowledging your participation in their programs and/or their participation in yours. Also include contact details of the business chamber as well as your personalized slide set.

4.5 Assignment 02

In this assignment, you will contact one community support committee of your choice (and of course in your area) and make a presentation.  You can search for and choose from the following committees:

  1. SGB – Student Governing Body
  2. Local economic development committees
  3. Find your nearest community development worker (CDW) and consult him/her regarding this topic.
  4. Any other useful committee you already know.

We suggest these committees, because they have access to both resources and activities and represent a cross-section of the community.  However, we suggest that you use the Student Governing Body (SGB) at a local school.  They have guaranteed access to and influence over school leavers.

Your goal is to explain and illustrate to one of these committees that your goals regarding career development overlap with theirs.  You can thus be of use to them and what you need is their support through local and municipal resources, knowledge and infrastructure.  You want to join their yearly activities and help them to make their events even more successful.

PCAR04Y, Unit 4, Activity 4

  1. Select a member of a nearby school Student Governing Body (SGB).  Make contact in any way e.g. email, and include the proof of contact for the assignment.  Explain to them what you are doing and what you are planning on doing with the information and links you obtain from them.  If you are stuck, refer back to PCAR04Y Unit 2 as a guide to what to ask and do.
  2. It is now up to you to present your cause to your audience. Remember to incorporate all your experiences and to include how you as individual learnt from the course and how these lessons can help the people in your community master basic competencies in preparation for career and personal growth. In the case of the school you present yourself as someone who will help students make informed and correct study choices and help them see a brighter future with real jobs and real opportunities, along with ways to prepare for them.
  3. In the assignment, you must include their schedule of events with a letter from them acknowledging your participation in their programs and/or their participation in yours. Also include contact details of the committee as well as your personalized slide set.

4.6 Conclusion


The purpose of this assignment is to provide you with a further opportunity to make contact with someone who can provide you with a clientele in future, along with guidance and support.  Keep this in mind as you complete this last section and see the exercise as a reason to connect and network with a person with standing, under the Unisa name.


The assignment will make you visible to the leaders in your community and they will most probably be interested in tracking your progress further.  Your presentations will give you the chance to identify areas for improvement (your presentation and communication skills as well as your content).

Key questions

  • Who are the people with the knowledge and resources?
  • How do you gain access to these sources of knowledge and resources?

3.1 Introduction

In Unit 2, you were provided with another tool (the careers library) for use in building and expanding as a career guidance practitioner. This unit lets you experience the processes used to access people with resources, existing infrastructures and relationships, which you can use to prepare for your presentations in the assignment (PCAR04Y: Unit 4) and the Workshops/Exhibitions in PCAR053.

3.2 People with knowledge and resources

Your on-line careers information library from the previous unit includes a heading named Relationships. You should keep an ordered list of relationships and resources you can access and utilise for clients and for yourself. Any client’s interest can be connected to associations and people locally who know people in these careers.  Simply ask people to connect you as explained in the social networking processes of PCAR01V/103.

3.2.1 National resources accessible in each municipality or metro

PCAR04Y, Unit 3, Activity 1

Here are a few links that can serve as examples of national resources that should be represented in your ward, municipality or metro.  The sites are self-explanatory.  Help your career seekers to mobilize and access the people with these resources.

Government resources

Your local province publishes information about initiatives and invites career seekers to participate.

Your local municipality

Your local business chambers, and member sites like, and the

Do you see how business-networking organizations are growing across the country and the world?

  1. Add links similar to these in your own region and explain briefly, why you chose them, and in what way they can help you.  If the web information does not exist yet, use the links as guidelines to find similar information and the people who are appointed to drive the initiatives.  Simply help them and allow them to help you.  They have access to the resources that you require to do your job.
  2. Find local email addresses of representatives of these resources in these websites: (You will repeat the exercise once you are familiar with it to access many other people with resources from organizations, institutions and corporations.)
  3. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book for the CV exercises and as part of your assignments.
  4. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference.


Access, support and use this infrastructure of resources and leaders. The resources belong to the community and the people in the organisations serve the community. Help them do the work that is expected of them!  Civil, civic and business organisations have people who want to help and are ready if only they can reach the people. These people need to rely on people like you to mobilise and organise the community for them to meet the right people, in groups, that share common interests.

3.2.2 Professional bodies

All of the following professional bodies have representatives within academic institutions who assist people in accessing jobs.  They will also be able to assist you as career guide to find and explore the route that someone needs to take if he/she wishes to enter a specific job in that industry.

  • Career guidance practitioners
  • Teacher associations
  • Nursing associations
  • Accounting boards
  • Legal boards
  • Tourism boards
  • Information and communication technology associations

PCAR04Y, Unit 3, Activity 2

  1. Choose one of the above associations, identify Careers within them, and show where you found people willing to share information with you (Whether it is their knowledge, experience, or network) and explain how you would use these connections when serving future clients.
  2. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book for the CV exercises and as part of your assignments.
  3. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference..


These careers can be researched through their respective associations, federations, institutes, societies, etc. They can be approached to obtain advice and information about potential career opportunities within their respective fields. If you did not find adequate information at an academic institution, such as Unisa, do not hesitate to engage in a more thorough research about the specific topic. The knowledge can only stand you in good stead in future.

3.2.3 Helping career seekers gain access to institutions of higher learning


Local organizations that you as career guide can approach are:

  • CHE (Council on Higher Education)
  • SAQA (South African Qualification Authority)

Home based or community based training:

Work place training:

Further education and training:

There are also international organizations where one can study.  However, they have very strict admission requirements.  It is relatively easy to find information on any university or course by conducting a search on

PCAR04Y, Unit 3, Activity 3

  1. Choose a course of study required by a profession from the previous activity and find out what the admission requirements are, and how to apply for a bursary if available.  Choose one local university and one international one.  This is practice for assisting a client through the same process
  2. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareerBook as part of your assignments.
  3. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference..

3.2.4 Career centres on the web

There are many career centres on the web. You will find them when working with Human Resource departments within companies. These sites and centres hold information about the jobs in the career seeker’s field as well as where to find them. If you can add value to people with this knowledge by introducing them to competent and willing people, you might be able to negotiate the payment of a percentage payable by the company or a placement agency.


Career information and support for students at:

Career centre:

Help the career seekers find centers relevant to their chosen work in selected industries.  Examples for:

3.2.5 Educational magazines and newspapers

All the information contained in educational magazines and newspapers can be found on the Internet with a little bit of effort.  Add these sites to your library as sites to consult when helping someone match their skills to a job.

Help the career seeker to match his/her interests to a job.  Keep in mind that they are the only experts on themselves.  The better you catalog your sites and information, the more effectively you will assist them to find their current ideal career.

PCAR04Y, Unit 3, Activity 4

  1. Open the Google web browser site
  2. Take the chosen profession from Activity 3 and find two educational magazine and newspaper sites using Google.  Use all the search tools that you have become familiar with to make your search more efficient.  For example, use Wikipedia to look up what accounting is all about (you might even find some very useful links on there).  Use this knowledge in your Google search.
  3. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises and as part of your assignments.
  4. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference.


Try to let your career seekers do most of the search work.  They will probably recognise a useful site better that you can.  This is after all, their area of interest!

3.2.6 Companies/Corporations

Business entities want access to people for business and investment opportunities which will lead them to new and competent employees.  When your clients are ready and know where they want to become involved, you must use your skills to find the person a company or corporation that needs people with their specific credentials.  Then you must help them prepare a CV and arrange an appointment.

By now, you have practiced these skills extensively and now it is merely a matter of implementing them.  Remember previous activities and sites and list them in your on-line library for future use.  You can approach companies and corporations through business chambers to mobilize your career seekers.  You will do this in the assignment (Unit 4) of this module.

3.2.7 Embassies

Embassies have a lot of information about their country and their national universities. Their internal staff can also be helpful in finding jobs and identifying the skills and qualifications which their countries demand. Utilise your relationships with the local leaders (and business chambers) to make contact at an embassy. Instead of going directly to an embassy, you are making use of a trusted and reliable person/organisation and this will allow you access to further resources. Remember to take advantage of the people whose job it is to connect the community with the leaders and other resources.

Sometimes students want to know about overseas studies. Therefore, it is useful to keep information on overseas institutions. This information is freely available on the web on the homepage of each embassy. Make an appointment to see them in groups or invite them to your workshops.

Inform and invite embassies to your workshops as they have resources, both intellectual and financial, that they could provide you with.

3.3 Access to sources of information

In Section 3.2 you were presented with infrastructures and relationships that you will need to grow and help your career seekers.  This section helps you to prepare your presentation for gaining access to people with resources, existing infrastructures and relationships.

What follows is a guideline that you as career guide can follow to gain access to various sources of information.  Remember to establish and advertise yourself as on one of many career centres worldwide when making contact with job sites, associations and corporations.  Here is a tip on how to obtain access:

Workplace experience

Your goal is to access and mobilise people in your local business chambers who in turn must mobilise the local business community who they serve.  You want to provide your career seekers with the opportunity to gain workplace exposure and even arrange for first-hand experiences. Remember, once you have completed the career guidance process with your clients, they will be mobilised as career seekers.  This means that they have identified their passion, their talents, and skills and that their parents, family, friends and leaders are involved with them. The career seekers know their personal gaps that require additional training. Thus, the career seekers are engaged with programmes that will help them close the gaps and meet their future career goals.  They also know the gaps in the market which they can target and they have planned their strategies and tactics for access. Most businesses will gladly assist such people with workplace experience.

PCAR04Y, Unit 3, Activity 5

  1. What is workplace experience?  Examine the following websites about workplace experience.
  4. Follow this case study on work place experience.
  5. Guidelines on how to keep a work place experience log.
  6. How will these websites help your career seekers make the most of their workplace experience?  Compile a short checklist for your career seekers on what they should do during their workplace experience.
  7. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries from completing the above activities in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises and as part of your assignments.
  8. Capture any important careers findings on your Blog or in your careers library for future reference.

3.4 Conclusion

In this unit, you have learnt how you can access people with knowledge and resources by adding value to them while taking your client to new heights. In the assignment, you will use the skills you have acquired during the course to access resources and information in collaboration with people in existing organisations and institutions. These processes can be repeated and expanded. The only limits you will encounter are those that you impose on yourself. You have the tools and the ability to make a viable difference with definite intent.

We congratulate you on moving on to the final unit in PCAR04Y where you share your experiences with local committees and cement your relationships with activists and champions.  In the assignment, you will make contact with business chambers and committees to gain access to business opportunities and workplace experience.  More importantly, these contacts will start growing your career guidance network and future business.

Key questions

  • Why should you keep all your careers information accumulated in this course?
  • How do you keep your careers information?


An abundance of work opportunities go begging because many potential takers do not know about them and/or do not have the competencies to take advantage of them. Information on these opportunities is available on the web and access is supported through associations, corporations, businesses and job agencies. Careers 24 is one of the sources of information and carrying out a general search on jobs in South Africa on will provide further information and contacts.

Remember, one can do the work of your choice in most industries. Most people have a passion and talents in a certain type of occupation rather than in a single industry. To add maximum value to your career seeker client, you need to accumulate information about all the industries you encounter on a continuous basis. The aim of this unit is to enable you, as a career guide, to start building an on-line library using the tools introduced in this unit. You will publish a version of this library to create an automatically updating on-line resource list for you and your fellow career guides to use, in order to provide an effective service.  Update your library with the new information found as a result of each new client.  Also, make use of the information obtained on your peers’ careers libraries.  In this way, you will have access to information on web sites, which are being updated by thousands of people worldwide!

After a few months, you will be able to function by yourself, with a wide variety of websites and diverse networks filed and documented in the shape of an on-line library.

The on-line careers library will form part of your on-line ‘exhibition’ supporting the careers workshop (your final assignment in Module 5).  This on-line exhibition has the potential to provide you with worldwide resources and audiences, which you can use to raise the level of awareness of local people regarding where and how they can benefit from international knowledge and opportunities.

Since the library is meant to communicate to teachers, parents and other potential pools of clients, it will make you visible to human resource companies, business chambers and many others.  It will assist you to earn placement fees that are paid by agencies and businesses for providing them with competent and willing people to work in their specific industry.

What you compile here is the first step towards a practical marketing approach. People will be able to view your library on-line and choose to buy your services. Remember you are now not only giving your client up to date opportunities, but you are indirectly starting a service, as your client will talk to others about his/her success due to your service. This markets your services. In your own time you might want to look at marketing strategies and possibilities on the web in general and on


You have already started to accumulate the necessary information in PCAR01V to PCAR03X.  Now you need to organise and adapt it to your situation and environment. PCAR04Y and PCAR053 will help you with the presentations and workshops by providing templates that you can adapt to local infrastructures, resources and organisations as career guidance entry-level stepping-stones.

However, let us focus on your first step to create your own on-line careers information library.  Remember to include local web sites and work access points to the library of information in order to prepare for up to date career exhibition workshops and career guidance relevant to the group or community with whom you are working.

Always remember to keep on updating and communicating!

Look at this very useful and thought-provoking site, used to organize practical libraries on-line.

PCAR04Y, Unit 2, Activity 1

  1. Open the Delicious online library
  2. You will find a careers library with a list of websites (some of them we have previously discussed in this course), but it also contains some new websites.  We will keep the careers.library list of bookmarks updated to keep you as career guide up to date with new tools and up to date information.  The aim of this activity is thus for you to register your own account.  Use the explanation on how to create and use a library on delicious, as a guideline and resource to create your own localized on-line careers library.
  3. The site has various tools to assist you in creating tags (categories to keep your related sites sorted) as well as tag bundles, which allow you to sort the tags into easily accessible and manageable units.  Use the Delicious online library and see what we have done there.  Remember that this is merely a guideline for you to use.
  4. This library also enables you to add people or other career guides to your network.  As a team of career guides, you can work together to keep each other updated and to provide support when working with clients.  Expand your local personal offer by using and applying all the web experience that you have gathered; register your own account with web site and start building on it.
  5. Delicious can become a very powerful filing and sharing tool which will keep you up to date with the newest and most relevant websites.  As a team, you can thus keep all the information up to date as well as help one another with queries and searches.
  6. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries while completing the above activities in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises and assignments.


You are now ready to keep on building your own library, containing information for career access workshops and on how to help others create their own libraries of resources with opportunities for work access. The career workshops are intended to show the progression from the start of work access towards and including growth at work.  This process of progression is shown in PCAR01V through to PCAR053:

  • PCAR01V: Theme research: Personality, aptitude, interest, values and careers in which you create awareness, engage, explore, discover, plan.
  • PCAR02W: Data gathering, analysis and interpretation in which you prepare for communication.
  • PCAR03X: Parent, community, employer involvement and entrepreneurship in which you meet the people and practise communication.
  • PCAR04Y: Career path information and careers exhibition in which you prepare the story, exhibition and workshops for work access process.
  • PCAR053: Holistic approach to community based career guidance in which you connect people into learning, working and earning.

You can catalogue your library according to this progression.


Keep your libraries going and use it as an on-line exhibition, ready at a moment’s notice. It will help you with workshops and on-line exhibition preparation. It will grow into a formidable source of information that will, in time, enable you to help people on an on-line basis. This also enables you to help many people simultaneously.  The level of your network and your information foundation will determine your level of success.  You should therefore keep on growing your on-line library for as long as you are involved with career guidance.







This module will help you to organise and file the information that you have gathered during the course in an on-line, easy and accessible format, which can be updated. You should consider what you are going to do with the accumulated information and how you are going to present it. That is why we will introduce you to the on-line information library.  This library is as dynamic as the requirements of the people you are going to sell you services to. You can draw information from it and use the information library to keep yourself up to date and to build your own library.

In this module, we also help to identify and allow you to experience the processes used to access people with resources, existing infrastructures and relationships.  Now is the time to start drawing on the relationships, which you have developed over the last few months, and to benefit from them!  Congratulations on taking your first action steps towards contributing to others and growing your own income.

This module is short and filled with practical work that you will need to complete in order to do the presentations and workshops required by the assignment and PCAR053.  Have fun and remember the goals towards which you are striving.

Key questions

  • How would you guide someone through the same process which you went through in this module?
  • Why would you recommend and insist on the idea of involving a career seeker’s community in his/her development action plan?
  • With whom will you connect him/her?
  • Can you convince a career seeker that there are opportunities for competent people with a healthy work ethic and a CV showing all his/her work experience?
  • What is entrepreneurial behaviour and how can one benefit from adopting the thinking style along with an extended network of resources?


In this, the final unit of Module 3, it is time for you to put some of the skills and knowledge to practical use. It is recommended that you involve someone who is already familiar with the process and the course from Module 1 and/or 2 to work with you in this unit. If this is not possible you can put forth hypothetical (imagine how it might be) answers to the questions that will follow.

Use and work from the activities that you have completed in the previous units. If you completed them and worked through them thoroughly, this unit should not be too difficult for you, and your career seeker client will benefit from it. This is a chance for you to practise and clarify the process which you will eventually use for paying clients.

The following sections (6.2-6.5) are the body of your assignment for PCAR03X. Create a suitable Introduction, and then answer the items listed under each of the following sections.


6.2.1 Start by explaining what the Johari Window is about and the purpose that it serves. Guide the career seekers through the process of self-discovery and help each one of them to fill in their own Johari Window. Encourage them to receive input from family or friends. This could also include yourself if you know the person well.

6.2.2 Take the career seeker through every part of the PCAR course (all three the modules that you have completed). . As you have been through the same process and experiences, you can guide your client through them. You are sharing your own personal experience with them. Guide them towards completing their own Venn diagram. Keep in mind that you are preparing your career seekers to communicate their results and interests to their own family and friends. Use adjectives from the Johari Window to help the career seekers achieve their goal. Here is a tip: do not tell them about yourself, but merely do the activities with them – they need to focus on themselves!

6.2.3 The next step is to coach the career seeker how to explain and present the results to their family, friends or employer. Also explain why it is important to gain the support of the people in his context. This will increase his/her chances of success.

6.2.4 Finally, you have to compile the results of the above process. This means that you will refer to the completed Venn diagram and the Johari Window along with a recording (written or audio) of the process and the career seeker’s experience.

6.2.5 Write a short summary of each of the above processes and submit it as part of your assignment.


6.3.1 Briefly explain to the career seekers the importance of the community and the employer in the context of finding a job.

6.3.2 Develop an action plan to help each one of your career seekers to connect to his/her relevant community or communities.  The relevance will be determined by their current interests or needs. When this is determined, answer the following questions:

  • Why did you choose the specific community or society and what are the projected benefits?
  • What are the steps you will take to bring your client to the relevant people?  Examples would include the business chambers, the CDW (Community Development Workers), societies or clubs.
  • Finally, if there were any gaps discovered that would keep you or your client from successfully accessing these resources, how would you go about bridging them?

6.3.3 Write a summary of each of the above steps to submit for your assignment.


6.4.1 In this assignment, it is up to your client to give you a mark out of 100.  You must be as briefly as possible and able to explain and convince your client of the following:

  • there are opportunities and jobs for competent people;
  • what a healthy work ethic constitutes and how it benefits everyone who adopts it;
  • there are ways to overcome all the challenges that lie ahead.

If you did the above successfully and your client has given you a percentage mark of 60% and higher, you can move on to the next section.  If your mark is less that 60%, just do it all again!

6.4.2 Help your client complete a CV if he/she does not already have one.  Refer back to Module 2, Unit 5 for completing a CV.  Now incorporate your previous experiences into this and identify places where you can improve and add beneficial information to the person’s CV. Therefore, it is up you to start identifying solutions to potential uncertainties.  Be careful now as we would like you record, as briefly as possible, the process you went through.

Note that we designed this process to prepare your clients for the world of work and to start equipping them to access it.


6.5.1  Start by explaining to the career seeker what Entrepreneurial practices and behaviours entail.  The better you teach yourself to explain this to career seekers, the more impact you will have on their lives and the more benefit you will able to bring to the process.

6.5.2  Once you feel comfortable that your client understands the above, you must show him/her what resources are available to him/her.  Note. All this information is in unit 5 of this module.

6.5.3 The next step is to choose three specific resources from the following four sectors: Business, Civic, Civil, and International to answer the following questions:

  • Why and how will they benefit your client?
  • Alternatively, why will they not benefit your client?

6.5.4 Write a short summary of the above activities which you submit as part of this assignment.

At the end of doing and recording the items in all the above sections, you need to complete Assignment 01 for PCAR03X by writing a suitable conclusion.


The objective of Module 3 Unit 5 is to introduce the career guidance practitioner to information and web sites enabling discussions with and the guidance of career seekers to entrepreneurship as a career option. This is not offered as a training course in entrepreneurship.

All over the world, the future of work and work creation include the concept of entrepreneurial behaviour. In South Africa too, entrepreneurial behaviour is seen as a means of creating more jobs and the desired increase in productivity. This entrepreneurial behaviour should contribute towards reaching the 2014 Millennium development goals. See the websites in Activity 1.

PCAR03X, Unit 5, Activity 1

  1. Skim through these websites for the millennium development goals detailed in them: and
  2. As we can see in (refer back to PCAR02W Unit 4) we have significant challenges to implement the 2014 Millennium development goals in South Africa.  Remember to use this information to create an urgency and action with your local resources and career seeker clients!
  3. List the eight 2014 Millennium development goals from the first two sites above.
  4. Find the life expectancy in South Africa on Gapminder.
  5. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  6. Record your experiences from completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


We expand entrepreneurship by adding entrepreneurial behaviours, otherwise called “enterprise living”, as a part of the solution. It means we are acquiring and creating a culture of urgency, action, entrepreneurial behaviour and a high work ethic.

Let us get the web sites where we can explain to career seekers what it is all about and create urgency for action with them.


PCAR03X, Unit 5, Activity 2

  1. Skim through these web sites for three definitions of intrapreneur and three definitions of entrepreneurs: and
  2. We include many local sites in PCAR04X Unit 1.
  3. Discuss your ideas about, intrapreneurs and entrepreneurs as a basis for responsible career choices, with your study colleagues, family or friends. Once you have done this, continue with the written tasks.
  4. Write the three definitions, which you best understand and with which you identify. Do this for both entrepreneurial behaviour and for entrepreneurship. Highlight the definition of each concept which you prefer. Explain in two sentences why you chose each one of these two definitions.
  5. Explain at least one difference between the two definitions
  6. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  7. Record your experiences from completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


  1. I am sure this was a lot of new information and thoughts. I hope you find it as exciting as we did when we collated the information for you. Can you see that the competencies required for successful careers, services and businesses are almost the same? The level of responsibility, risk and return is higher in owner businesses. Live the entrepreneurial behaviour processes!  You will then be successful in the value you will add to others, in careers, services and businesses.
  2. The purpose is to clarify the difference between the usual view regarding entrepreneurship and the idea of entrepreneurship as proposed in the PCAR. This will help your career seeker clients to understand entrepreneurial thinking. It will emphasise why most people can become entrepreneurial thinkers with knowledge and support from experts in the field. However, this can only happen once people accept the challenge to behave in an entrepreneurial manner.


You will need to have a look at what the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) report says about entrepreneurial habits and the gaps found within South Africans presently. Jeffry A Timmons is a recognized guru on Entrepreneurship with many books used by many Universities in South Africa to teach Entrepreneurship. Do the following activity to get more information about these books.

Type “Timmons entrepreneurship information” into Google and choose South African web sites. From Timmons’ site, you will get solid information regarding the development of entrepreneurial behaviour. People should remember that gaining knowledge while working, even without pay, is cheaper than learning on your own. Such entrepreneurial behaviours or habits can determine career seekers’ level of success in a business or career. This means that career seekers should start working without pay in order to learn from existing businesses. It might mean that career seekers must work only to gain more knowledge and that only at a later stage, they might earn money. Remember to include the knowledge you gain from being involved with successful people when you calculate a career seekers’ wage. The wage itself might have a low rand value, but the knowledge you gain cannot be calculated in terms of money. Browse through newspapers to find out what training courses cost and you will realise how solid this argument is.  You will be able to apply the knowledge for the rest of your work life and in that manner; you will receive “backpay” many times over.

A great deal is being done in South Africa to promote entrepreneurial behaviour.  The government and business have done everything that can be expected of them and they are still trying to do more. It is now up to each of us to take action in our homes and geographical communities. In the following section, attention is given to three important actions to promote entrepreneurship (which includes entrepreneurial behaviour, entrepreneurial thinking and entrepreneurial habits). It is important to think about these three actions and apply them within the context of your own community.

Another entrepreneurial possibility of which you as a career guidance practitioner should be aware of, are franchise opportunities.  Franchising (from the French for honesty or freedom) is simply where you use a method of doing business wherein a franchisor licenses trademarks and tried and proven methods of doing business.  In exchange, the franchisee (the person to whom the permission has been given to use these “trade secrets”, has to make a a recurring payment which is usually a fixed percentage of gross sales or gross profits as well as the annual fees. Good examples of franchised businesses are MacDonalds / B P garages / Scooters Pizzas / etc.  Various tangibles (do you remember that all Wimpies have the same furniture and layout inside?) and intangibles such as national or international advertising (you can recognise the logo in foreign countries too). Training and other support services (for instance regular inspection of kitchens and service standards) are commonly made available by the franchisor, and may indeed be required by the franchisor, who generally requires audited books, and may subject the franchisee or the outlet to periodic and surprise spot checks. Failure of such tests typically involves non-renewal or cancellation of franchise rights.

A business operated under a franchise arrangement is often called a chain store, franchise outlet, or simply franchise.  Read more about franchising on wikipedia.

We list a set of web sites regarding entrepreneurship and franchises to get you and the career seeker started. Follow the links on these web sites to find more resources for you and your career seekers to use. Don’t be disheartened if you bump into difficult web sites. Be aware that some sites are challenging. The processes and required criteria can be tough and even unattainable at a beginner level. (Remember how you battled to ride a bicycle when you were young?) Rather focus on working your way up. Do however take the time to familiarize yourself with these sites, and sift out the ones you can use for future reference.

Assistance in acquiring a FRANCHISED business

Assistance in buying franchises that hold relation with your interests and strengths is also available on the web, from banks and many local businesses near to you.

Not everybody who applies for a franchise licence is given one. Why not? The key is to be awarded the privilege to use a well-known name is your personal ability to run such a venture. You need to prove that you have the competencies required to run one!

  • How can you connect to the franchising world? Find your local franchising body. This is the official web site of the Franchise Association. All you or your career seeker client will ever need to know about franchising and franchises is here.
  • Every bank has franchising assistance. Assist the career seeker to contact the bank of their preference for information.
  • Wikipedia has a clear definition and history of the franchising industry.
  • Access the Small Business Development Agency.

INTERNATIONAL SITES for entrepreneurial career seekers to use

  • Business knowledge and support
  • Our Google search presented too many sites to be included here, so go look at more sites and remember that the number of sites keep growing and the content is updated regularly.


Get your client started with RESOURCES:

  • Department of trade and industry
  • Small business development agency
  • Department of Labour gives support and Learnerships
  • The International Labour Organization supports programs with Chamsa
  • Skills portal has the best summary of Learnerships

How will this help you?

Your client can do the following:

  • The sites above and other specific sites contain opportunities for you and your career seekers.
  • Search for your interest in work and industry in locations closest to you or even internationally.
  • Look for franchises and other organized opportunities. The career seeker can gain competencies by working in a franchise of his/her choice.  Type “franchise” into Google and help your career seeker client find what they need to fit there personal exploration and discoveries from PCAR01V.
  • Business and career opportunities
  • Sample career and enterprise access

Call centre agents and self-training.

Become competent in English spelling and pronunciation and typing skills, Also know your country and its cities. These are basic skills for a call centre operator (and many other jobs). Once you are qualified, you can even work from home or use your skills as a stepping-stone towards the career you really want.

Tourism support, marketing and self-training

Become proficient in English communication and the Internet.  Become knowledgeable about the tourist attractions and tour companies.  Then you can invite tourists to South Africa in partnership with the tourist attractions and tour companies and be part of their experience. Career seekers can use the Internet and local relationships as you did in tutorial letters PCAR01V/102/2007 and PCAR01V/103/2007 to make use of these opportunities.

Get your client started with BUSINESS RESOURCES

  • Encourage people to contribute to business chambers and existing businesses while they learn.
  • Look at the member organizations. Each one has chambers in most places in South Africa and their members can provide assistance to the career seeker. We recommend that you go to a meeting with the local chambers to announce your services and gain access to resources for your future clients.
  • Banks: Have a look at various bank websites and familiarize yourself with the online services that they offer. Let the career seeker fully utilize these banking services – they are often available for free!
  • Financial services industry: Contact local representatives of large financial institutions. They have much in resources, relationships and opportunities for access to business. The industry needs your clients for their business.


Remember that the reason there is such a big emphasis on entrepreneurial (thinking, behaviour, habits, resources and projects) is to empower you to be able to guide career seekers to a new way of living. In spite of there being many jobs available (go to a local job placement agency and ask them how many jobs they are trying to fill), your career seekers might find it better to develop the skills which they already possess by developing themselves into entrepreneurs, than re-skilling themselves to be suitable for existing jobs. The choice is theirs.

Your objective is to be a catalyst for flow of information, resources, opportunity access from existing programs to your constituency. Not to become an entrepreneurship trainer.

Help people get started using their current environment to take the initiative and action. Consider a possible ordinary day for yourself and the career seeker and ask:

  • Do you buy your clothes, have them sewn or sew them yourself?
  • Do you buy your food, or do you grow it?
  • Do you prepare your own food, or do you pay somebody else to do it?
  • Can you bake a cake?  On the other hand, would you prefer to buy a “flop proof”, ready-made one?
  • Who looks after your children, your animals, and the old people in your family?  Do you sometimes need a part-time babysitter?
  • When you travel, do you use your own car, hired transport, public transport?

You and the career seeker can do these and many other things for yourself and others. This is how you learn about service, contribution and self-development.

However, it is also simply clever and good marketing for your own personal career guidance services as career guidance practitioner when you introduce programmes into your own community. You can use school and university projects to access people and resources in your communities. Add great value to the educational programmes which schools and universities offer and in doing so gain powerful marketing for your career guidance practice.

We list a few well-known types of projects and activities below. These well-established projects make it easier for you to attract resources (such as financial assistance, training, networking, counselling, mentoring and advice). You might even be paid for the successful integration of you career seeking clients into the existing job market (this is the principle on which job placement agencies work). The results you achieve will speak for themselves. You can learn much more from established projects than from starting new ones.

  • SIFE of University Students in Free Enterprise helps their local communities. Find the South African SIFE students and contact them to offer your personal skills and your business as career guidance practitioner as a potential part of one of their projects.
  • Business projects for schools are covered in your next activity.
  • Work projects for school learners
  • Work projects for people at home.
  • An implementation in America we can learn from.
  • Many organisations, NGOs (non-governmental organisations), universities, colleges, technicians, technical colleges, and private persons offer courses in how to start a business and how to keep it running at a profit. They also offer financial assistance, training, networking, counselling, mentoring and advice. (Some of these courses are presented in South African schools).
  • You will also find valuable information in the printed media. This means that you have to read your local newspapers. Most papers now have a section on small business and careers. A good source to consult is the weekly newspaper job finder “your national employment guide.” this newspaper focuses on jobs, careers, labour law articles, small business opportunities and self-employment opportunities.


You need to be aware and allow your clients to become aware of the many opportunities and the local and international resources that are available. Leaders and teachers in schools become aware of how they can earn more money while teaching the learners about enterprise projects. Use these projects to help local leaders raise the money. Perhaps you can explain to them that you need a small percentage of the raised funds, which reflects the proportion of the contribution you made. However, it might be better to first practice you personal skills without such a request.

PCAR03X, Unit 5, Activity 3

  1. Type “What students say about entrepreneurship” into Google search and choose two of the sites that you like and say why you liked them more than you liked some of the others.
  2. Type “School going entrepreneur’s projects” into Google search and choose two of the sites that you like and say why you like.  An example we chose is
  3. Enterprise Northland have a complete program that you can learn from for local projects.  You may even ask them for help.
  4. Look at Life Long Learners and use the information to encourage similar local projects.
  5. Can you encourage Life Long Learner attitudes?
  6. Discuss your ideas on enterprise or entrepreneurial programs at school with people already involved like the teachers and also discuss how such a project can grow your business while you help their learners and the school.
  7. For the written part of this activity, do the following:
  • Can you see how to implement such projects locally? If “yes”, state why. If “no” state why not.
  • Which local projects can you share with others? Can you put the local project on a WEBLOG (The same kind of blog you created for yourself in tutorial letter PCAR01V/102/2007)?

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.

Record your experiences from completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.

Here is some feedback from people who have dared to develop their entrepreneurial behaviour, thinking, habits, resources and projects:

Lional Brits ( Grade 7) “I’m glad I got the opportunity to start my own business.”

The Bafanas (four youths from Umbonambi) “We learnt how to voice our opinions, pool our ideas and use all our sources. Forward the entrepreneurs programme.”

Jafta Moloi (20 ) “The programme must be supported and it has got to spread around South Africa to create successful entrepreneurs of the future.”

Mpho, who was failing in maths, realised the importance of the subject when he started buying and selling T-shirts.

Siphiwe thought that buying something for $5 and selling it for $10 was like dealing in drugs – illegal. Up until then he was not aware that there is joy in serving others and making a margin for your effort.

These are examples that entrepreneurship educators provided of the experiences of learners who had been exposed to entrepreneurship programmes.  (Source: The International Entrepreneurship Education Forum held in New Mexico, 1995.)

School learner projects from across the world are brought to you via the Internet.  You can also take what you learn worldwide and earn a trip to any destination in the world as others have done working from incentives for doing just this! Students from the University of Pretoria were sponsored to recently attended meetings in Norway. This meant that they did not have to pay anything!  Apply on your own selected web sites and see what can happen when you align yourself with existing programs through being useful to them and to be noticed.


Small services such as delivering newspapers, washing cars, growing and/selling vegetables might be some of the business ideas that you might find around student entrepreneurs.

Keep on consulting the web to find knowledge, resources and opportunities. Become useful to the people and they will notice you.

We hope that this gives you some food for thought.


We challenge you to encourage people to use enterprise living, entrepreneurial behaviour, entrepreneurial thinking, entrepreneurial resources and entrepreneurial projects in all careers. Help people get connected to start careers and businesses.

In short, become entrepreneurial yourself.

In this unit, you gained information on how to help your career seeker clients to become aware of the opportunities to be entrepreneurial in growing careers and businesses. We showed how most people could use entrepreneurial behaviour while accessing knowledge, resources, and opportunities. We highlighted some of the processes to implement in your work life and your career seeker clients’ work lives.