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This module will help you to organise and file the information that you have gathered during the course in an on-line, easy and accessible format, which can be updated. You should consider what you are going to do with the accumulated information and how you are going to present it. That is why we will introduce you to the on-line information library.  This library is as dynamic as the requirements of the people you are going to sell you services to. You can draw information from it and use the information library to keep yourself up to date and to build your own library.

In this module, we also help to identify and allow you to experience the processes used to access people with resources, existing infrastructures and relationships.  Now is the time to start drawing on the relationships, which you have developed over the last few months, and to benefit from them!  Congratulations on taking your first action steps towards contributing to others and growing your own income.

This module is short and filled with practical work that you will need to complete in order to do the presentations and workshops required by the assignment and PCAR053.  Have fun and remember the goals towards which you are striving.

Key questions

  • How would you guide someone through the same process which you went through in this module?
  • Why would you recommend and insist on the idea of involving a career seeker’s community in his/her development action plan?
  • With whom will you connect him/her?
  • Can you convince a career seeker that there are opportunities for competent people with a healthy work ethic and a CV showing all his/her work experience?
  • What is entrepreneurial behaviour and how can one benefit from adopting the thinking style along with an extended network of resources?


In this, the final unit of Module 3, it is time for you to put some of the skills and knowledge to practical use. It is recommended that you involve someone who is already familiar with the process and the course from Module 1 and/or 2 to work with you in this unit. If this is not possible you can put forth hypothetical (imagine how it might be) answers to the questions that will follow.

Use and work from the activities that you have completed in the previous units. If you completed them and worked through them thoroughly, this unit should not be too difficult for you, and your career seeker client will benefit from it. This is a chance for you to practise and clarify the process which you will eventually use for paying clients.

The following sections (6.2-6.5) are the body of your assignment for PCAR03X. Create a suitable Introduction, and then answer the items listed under each of the following sections.


6.2.1 Start by explaining what the Johari Window is about and the purpose that it serves. Guide the career seekers through the process of self-discovery and help each one of them to fill in their own Johari Window. Encourage them to receive input from family or friends. This could also include yourself if you know the person well.

6.2.2 Take the career seeker through every part of the PCAR course (all three the modules that you have completed). . As you have been through the same process and experiences, you can guide your client through them. You are sharing your own personal experience with them. Guide them towards completing their own Venn diagram. Keep in mind that you are preparing your career seekers to communicate their results and interests to their own family and friends. Use adjectives from the Johari Window to help the career seekers achieve their goal. Here is a tip: do not tell them about yourself, but merely do the activities with them – they need to focus on themselves!

6.2.3 The next step is to coach the career seeker how to explain and present the results to their family, friends or employer. Also explain why it is important to gain the support of the people in his context. This will increase his/her chances of success.

6.2.4 Finally, you have to compile the results of the above process. This means that you will refer to the completed Venn diagram and the Johari Window along with a recording (written or audio) of the process and the career seeker’s experience.

6.2.5 Write a short summary of each of the above processes and submit it as part of your assignment.


6.3.1 Briefly explain to the career seekers the importance of the community and the employer in the context of finding a job.

6.3.2 Develop an action plan to help each one of your career seekers to connect to his/her relevant community or communities.  The relevance will be determined by their current interests or needs. When this is determined, answer the following questions:

  • Why did you choose the specific community or society and what are the projected benefits?
  • What are the steps you will take to bring your client to the relevant people?  Examples would include the business chambers, the CDW (Community Development Workers), societies or clubs.
  • Finally, if there were any gaps discovered that would keep you or your client from successfully accessing these resources, how would you go about bridging them?

6.3.3 Write a summary of each of the above steps to submit for your assignment.


6.4.1 In this assignment, it is up to your client to give you a mark out of 100.  You must be as briefly as possible and able to explain and convince your client of the following:

  • there are opportunities and jobs for competent people;
  • what a healthy work ethic constitutes and how it benefits everyone who adopts it;
  • there are ways to overcome all the challenges that lie ahead.

If you did the above successfully and your client has given you a percentage mark of 60% and higher, you can move on to the next section.  If your mark is less that 60%, just do it all again!

6.4.2 Help your client complete a CV if he/she does not already have one.  Refer back to Module 2, Unit 5 for completing a CV.  Now incorporate your previous experiences into this and identify places where you can improve and add beneficial information to the person’s CV. Therefore, it is up you to start identifying solutions to potential uncertainties.  Be careful now as we would like you record, as briefly as possible, the process you went through.

Note that we designed this process to prepare your clients for the world of work and to start equipping them to access it.


6.5.1  Start by explaining to the career seeker what Entrepreneurial practices and behaviours entail.  The better you teach yourself to explain this to career seekers, the more impact you will have on their lives and the more benefit you will able to bring to the process.

6.5.2  Once you feel comfortable that your client understands the above, you must show him/her what resources are available to him/her.  Note. All this information is in unit 5 of this module.

6.5.3 The next step is to choose three specific resources from the following four sectors: Business, Civic, Civil, and International to answer the following questions:

  • Why and how will they benefit your client?
  • Alternatively, why will they not benefit your client?

6.5.4 Write a short summary of the above activities which you submit as part of this assignment.

At the end of doing and recording the items in all the above sections, you need to complete Assignment 01 for PCAR03X by writing a suitable conclusion.


The objective of Module 3 Unit 5 is to introduce the career guidance practitioner to information and web sites enabling discussions with and the guidance of career seekers to entrepreneurship as a career option. This is not offered as a training course in entrepreneurship.

All over the world, the future of work and work creation include the concept of entrepreneurial behaviour. In South Africa too, entrepreneurial behaviour is seen as a means of creating more jobs and the desired increase in productivity. This entrepreneurial behaviour should contribute towards reaching the 2014 Millennium development goals. See the websites in Activity 1.

PCAR03X, Unit 5, Activity 1

  1. Skim through these websites for the millennium development goals detailed in them:  http://ddp-ext.worldbank.org/ext/GMIS/home.do?siteId=2 and http://www1.oecd.org/dac/ictcd/docs/otherdocs/OtherDAC_MDGs.pdf.
  2. As we can see in www.gapminder.org (refer back to PCAR02W Unit 4) we have significant challenges to implement the 2014 Millennium development goals in South Africa.  Remember to use this information to create an urgency and action with your local resources and career seeker clients!
  3. List the eight 2014 Millennium development goals from the first two sites above.
  4. Find the life expectancy in South Africa on Gapminder.
  5. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  6. Record your experiences from completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


We expand entrepreneurship by adding entrepreneurial behaviours, otherwise called “enterprise living”, as a part of the solution. It means we are acquiring and creating a culture of urgency, action, entrepreneurial behaviour and a high work ethic.

Let us get the web sites where we can explain to career seekers what it is all about and create urgency for action with them.


PCAR03X, Unit 5, Activity 2

  1. Skim through these web sites for three definitions of intrapreneur and three definitions of entrepreneurs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entrepreneurhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intrapreneurshiphttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entrepreneurship and http://africa.smetoolkit.org/index.jsp?locale=1
  2. We include many local sites in PCAR04X Unit 1.
  3. Discuss your ideas about, intrapreneurs and entrepreneurs as a basis for responsible career choices, with your study colleagues, family or friends. Once you have done this, continue with the written tasks.
  4. Write the three definitions, which you best understand and with which you identify. Do this for both entrepreneurial behaviour and for entrepreneurship. Highlight the definition of each concept which you prefer. Explain in two sentences why you chose each one of these two definitions.
  5. Explain at least one difference between the two definitions
  6. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  7. Record your experiences from completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


  1. I am sure this was a lot of new information and thoughts. I hope you find it as exciting as we did when we collated the information for you. Can you see that the competencies required for successful careers, services and businesses are almost the same? The level of responsibility, risk and return is higher in owner businesses. Live the entrepreneurial behaviour processes!  You will then be successful in the value you will add to others, in careers, services and businesses.
  2. The purpose is to clarify the difference between the usual view regarding entrepreneurship and the idea of entrepreneurship as proposed in the PCAR. This will help your career seeker clients to understand entrepreneurial thinking. It will emphasise why most people can become entrepreneurial thinkers with knowledge and support from experts in the field. However, this can only happen once people accept the challenge to behave in an entrepreneurial manner.


You will need to have a look at what the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) report says about entrepreneurial habits and the gaps found within South Africans presently. Jeffry A Timmons is a recognized guru on Entrepreneurship with many books used by many Universities in South Africa to teach Entrepreneurship. Do the following activity to get more information about these books.

Type “Timmons entrepreneurship information” into Google and choose South African web sites. From Timmons’ site, you will get solid information regarding the development of entrepreneurial behaviour. People should remember that gaining knowledge while working, even without pay, is cheaper than learning on your own. Such entrepreneurial behaviours or habits can determine career seekers’ level of success in a business or career. This means that career seekers should start working without pay in order to learn from existing businesses. It might mean that career seekers must work only to gain more knowledge and that only at a later stage, they might earn money. Remember to include the knowledge you gain from being involved with successful people when you calculate a career seekers’ wage. The wage itself might have a low rand value, but the knowledge you gain cannot be calculated in terms of money. Browse through newspapers to find out what training courses cost and you will realise how solid this argument is.  You will be able to apply the knowledge for the rest of your work life and in that manner; you will receive “backpay” many times over.

A great deal is being done in South Africa to promote entrepreneurial behaviour.  The government and business have done everything that can be expected of them and they are still trying to do more. It is now up to each of us to take action in our homes and geographical communities. In the following section, attention is given to three important actions to promote entrepreneurship (which includes entrepreneurial behaviour, entrepreneurial thinking and entrepreneurial habits). It is important to think about these three actions and apply them within the context of your own community.

Another entrepreneurial possibility of which you as a career guidance practitioner should be aware of, are franchise opportunities.  Franchising (from the French for honesty or freedom) is simply where you use a method of doing business wherein a franchisor licenses trademarks and tried and proven methods of doing business.  In exchange, the franchisee (the person to whom the permission has been given to use these “trade secrets”, has to make a a recurring payment which is usually a fixed percentage of gross sales or gross profits as well as the annual fees. Good examples of franchised businesses are MacDonalds / B P garages / Scooters Pizzas / etc.  Various tangibles (do you remember that all Wimpies have the same furniture and layout inside?) and intangibles such as national or international advertising (you can recognise the logo in foreign countries too). Training and other support services (for instance regular inspection of kitchens and service standards) are commonly made available by the franchisor, and may indeed be required by the franchisor, who generally requires audited books, and may subject the franchisee or the outlet to periodic and surprise spot checks. Failure of such tests typically involves non-renewal or cancellation of franchise rights.

A business operated under a franchise arrangement is often called a chain store, franchise outlet, or simply franchise.  Read more about franchising on wikipedia.

We list a set of web sites regarding entrepreneurship and franchises to get you and the career seeker started. Follow the links on these web sites to find more resources for you and your career seekers to use. Don’t be disheartened if you bump into difficult web sites. Be aware that some sites are challenging. The processes and required criteria can be tough and even unattainable at a beginner level. (Remember how you battled to ride a bicycle when you were young?) Rather focus on working your way up. Do however take the time to familiarize yourself with these sites, and sift out the ones you can use for future reference.

Assistance in acquiring a FRANCHISED business

Assistance in buying franchises that hold relation with your interests and strengths is also available on the web, from banks and many local businesses near to you.

Not everybody who applies for a franchise licence is given one. Why not? The key is to be awarded the privilege to use a well-known name is your personal ability to run such a venture. You need to prove that you have the competencies required to run one!

  • How can you connect to the franchising world? Find your local franchising body. This is the official web site of the Franchise Association. All you or your career seeker client will ever need to know about franchising and franchises is here.
  • Every bank has franchising assistance. Assist the career seeker to contact the bank of their preference for information.
  • Wikipedia has a clear definition and history of the franchising industry.
  • Access the Small Business Development Agency.

INTERNATIONAL SITES for entrepreneurial career seekers to use

  • Business knowledge and support
  • Our Google search presented too many sites to be included here, so go look at more sites and remember that the number of sites keep growing and the content is updated regularly.


Get your client started with RESOURCES:

  • Department of trade and industry
  • Small business development agency
  • Department of Labour gives support and Learnerships
  • The International Labour Organization supports programs with Chamsa
  • Skills portal has the best summary of Learnerships

How will this help you?

Your client can do the following:

  • The sites above and other specific sites contain opportunities for you and your career seekers.
  • Search for your interest in work and industry in locations closest to you or even internationally.
  • Look for franchises and other organized opportunities. The career seeker can gain competencies by working in a franchise of his/her choice.  Type “franchise” into Google and help your career seeker client find what they need to fit there personal exploration and discoveries from PCAR01V.
  • Business and career opportunities
  • Sample career and enterprise access

Call centre agents and self-training.

Become competent in English spelling and pronunciation and typing skills, Also know your country and its cities. These are basic skills for a call centre operator (and many other jobs). Once you are qualified, you can even work from home or use your skills as a stepping-stone towards the career you really want.

Tourism support, marketing and self-training

Become proficient in English communication and the Internet.  Become knowledgeable about the tourist attractions and tour companies.  Then you can invite tourists to South Africa in partnership with the tourist attractions and tour companies and be part of their experience. Career seekers can use the Internet and local relationships as you did in tutorial letters PCAR01V/102/2007 and PCAR01V/103/2007 to make use of these opportunities.

Get your client started with BUSINESS RESOURCES

  • Encourage people to contribute to business chambers and existing businesses while they learn.
  • Look at the member organizations. Each one has chambers in most places in South Africa and their members can provide assistance to the career seeker. We recommend that you go to a meeting with the local chambers to announce your services and gain access to resources for your future clients.
  • Banks: Have a look at various bank websites and familiarize yourself with the online services that they offer. Let the career seeker fully utilize these banking services – they are often available for free!
  • Financial services industry: Contact local representatives of large financial institutions. They have much in resources, relationships and opportunities for access to business. The industry needs your clients for their business.


Remember that the reason there is such a big emphasis on entrepreneurial (thinking, behaviour, habits, resources and projects) is to empower you to be able to guide career seekers to a new way of living. In spite of there being many jobs available (go to a local job placement agency and ask them how many jobs they are trying to fill), your career seekers might find it better to develop the skills which they already possess by developing themselves into entrepreneurs, than re-skilling themselves to be suitable for existing jobs. The choice is theirs.

Your objective is to be a catalyst for flow of information, resources, opportunity access from existing programs to your constituency. Not to become an entrepreneurship trainer.

Help people get started using their current environment to take the initiative and action. Consider a possible ordinary day for yourself and the career seeker and ask:

  • Do you buy your clothes, have them sewn or sew them yourself?
  • Do you buy your food, or do you grow it?
  • Do you prepare your own food, or do you pay somebody else to do it?
  • Can you bake a cake?  On the other hand, would you prefer to buy a “flop proof”, ready-made one?
  • Who looks after your children, your animals, and the old people in your family?  Do you sometimes need a part-time babysitter?
  • When you travel, do you use your own car, hired transport, public transport?

You and the career seeker can do these and many other things for yourself and others. This is how you learn about service, contribution and self-development.

However, it is also simply clever and good marketing for your own personal career guidance services as career guidance practitioner when you introduce programmes into your own community. You can use school and university projects to access people and resources in your communities. Add great value to the educational programmes which schools and universities offer and in doing so gain powerful marketing for your career guidance practice.

We list a few well-known types of projects and activities below. These well-established projects make it easier for you to attract resources (such as financial assistance, training, networking, counselling, mentoring and advice). You might even be paid for the successful integration of you career seeking clients into the existing job market (this is the principle on which job placement agencies work). The results you achieve will speak for themselves. You can learn much more from established projects than from starting new ones.

  • SIFE of University Students in Free Enterprise helps their local communities. Find the South African SIFE students and contact them to offer your personal skills and your business as career guidance practitioner as a potential part of one of their projects.
  • Business projects for schools are covered in your next activity.
  • Work projects for school learners
  • Work projects for people at home.
  • An implementation in America we can learn from.
  • http://www.sba.gov/gopher/Business-Development/Success-Series/Vol6/entre.txt
  • Many organisations, NGOs (non-governmental organisations), universities, colleges, technicians, technical colleges, and private persons offer courses in how to start a business and how to keep it running at a profit. They also offer financial assistance, training, networking, counselling, mentoring and advice. (Some of these courses are presented in South African schools).
  • You will also find valuable information in the printed media. This means that you have to read your local newspapers. Most papers now have a section on small business and careers. A good source to consult is the weekly newspaper job finder “your national employment guide.” this newspaper focuses on jobs, careers, labour law articles, small business opportunities and self-employment opportunities.


You need to be aware and allow your clients to become aware of the many opportunities and the local and international resources that are available. Leaders and teachers in schools become aware of how they can earn more money while teaching the learners about enterprise projects. Use these projects to help local leaders raise the money. Perhaps you can explain to them that you need a small percentage of the raised funds, which reflects the proportion of the contribution you made. However, it might be better to first practice you personal skills without such a request.

PCAR03X, Unit 5, Activity 3

  1. Type “What students say about entrepreneurship” into Google search and choose two of the sites that you like and say why you liked them more than you liked some of the others.
  2. Type “School going entrepreneur’s projects” into Google search and choose two of the sites that you like and say why you like.  An example we chose is
  3. Enterprise Northland have a complete program that you can learn from for local projects.  You may even ask them for help.
  4. Look at Life Long Learners and use the information to encourage similar local projects.
  5. Can you encourage Life Long Learner attitudes?
  6. Discuss your ideas on enterprise or entrepreneurial programs at school with people already involved like the teachers and also discuss how such a project can grow your business while you help their learners and the school.
  7. For the written part of this activity, do the following:
  • Can you see how to implement such projects locally? If “yes”, state why. If “no” state why not.
  • Which local projects can you share with others? Can you put the local project on a WEBLOG (The same kind of blog you created for yourself in tutorial letter PCAR01V/102/2007)?

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.

Record your experiences from completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.

Here is some feedback from people who have dared to develop their entrepreneurial behaviour, thinking, habits, resources and projects:

Lional Brits ( Grade 7) “I’m glad I got the opportunity to start my own business.”

The Bafanas (four youths from Umbonambi) “We learnt how to voice our opinions, pool our ideas and use all our sources. Forward the entrepreneurs programme.”

Jafta Moloi (20 ) “The programme must be supported and it has got to spread around South Africa to create successful entrepreneurs of the future.”

Mpho, who was failing in maths, realised the importance of the subject when he started buying and selling T-shirts.

Siphiwe thought that buying something for $5 and selling it for $10 was like dealing in drugs – illegal. Up until then he was not aware that there is joy in serving others and making a margin for your effort.

These are examples that entrepreneurship educators provided of the experiences of learners who had been exposed to entrepreneurship programmes.  (Source: The International Entrepreneurship Education Forum held in New Mexico, 1995.)

School learner projects from across the world are brought to you via the Internet.  You can also take what you learn worldwide and earn a trip to any destination in the world as others have done working from incentives for doing just this! Students from the University of Pretoria were sponsored to recently attended www.MIT100K.org meetings in Norway. This meant that they did not have to pay anything!  Apply on your own selected web sites and see what can happen when you align yourself with existing programs through being useful to them and to be noticed.


Small services such as delivering newspapers, washing cars, growing and/selling vegetables might be some of the business ideas that you might find around student entrepreneurs.

Keep on consulting the web to find knowledge, resources and opportunities. Become useful to the people and they will notice you.

We hope that this gives you some food for thought.


We challenge you to encourage people to use enterprise living, entrepreneurial behaviour, entrepreneurial thinking, entrepreneurial resources and entrepreneurial projects in all careers. Help people get connected to start careers and businesses.

In short, become entrepreneurial yourself.

In this unit, you gained information on how to help your career seeker clients to become aware of the opportunities to be entrepreneurial in growing careers and businesses. We showed how most people could use entrepreneurial behaviour while accessing knowledge, resources, and opportunities. We highlighted some of the processes to implement in your work life and your career seeker clients’ work lives.


In the changing world of work there is almost unlimited work available for people with the right competencies. How does it happen that people are perpetually complaining that there is not enough work to do? Perhaps the problem lies with the skills and competencies a person has to offer to the workplace. This means that you need to gain the right competencies along with work access and work experience in order to ensure a job for yourself (and your future clients). You can do this by exposing yourself to different work situations and by doing work with people who are already have a measure of success in their work situation.

This unit illustrates the importance and reasons for you and your clients to work with someone. Preferably this should be someone close to you or someone who is one level superior to you as you will have to take up some of their time in the workplace and time is money!

How do you convince them that you are serious about your mission? Show them that you and your career seekers are doing peer group learning and need to learn with them (Module 1). The benefits that they will get out of the experience are personal growth from explaining and talking about their jobs and they can earn money from recruitment and placement fees. You need to empower them to share their work experience with you. Remind them that we are always the owners of our own choices and actions. Their decision to allow you to enter their world of work (as an observer) can make or break you (and your future clients). Our beliefs and attitudes keep us doing what we are currently doing. You can tactfully point out to them that you would not have approached them if you did not know/believe that they are successful role models whom you would like to follow and you know they are certain of their success and will not be threatened by your presence in their work situation.  Refer back to the attitude module (PCAR 01W Unit 5) in order to use the information which you studied to strengthen your argument and to convince them of your seriousness.

Don’t we often wait for something to happen and then we are disappointed when nothing happens or no one intervenes to change our circumstances? Now you are in the process of getting the tools which make it possible for you to choose to take action and make a difference to your own life and to the lives of others!

You can to refer to stratification and communities in PCAR3X Unit 3 to remind yourself of what separates the rich and the poor.  It is beliefs and habits which include lack of exposure to different work situations. If you decide to create work related experiences for yourself and others, you have demonstrate an attitude of, “I can” vs. one of “They must” in which you sit back and wait for opportunities to come to you.

The difference between South Africa and the United States of America is that South Africans often see work as punishment and something to be avoided. This statement is based on the personal experience of many of our family and friends who have visited or immigrated to the United States. This is prevalent among many young people across all the races. A young South African who only gets his/her first work experience at the age of 18 or higher is literally 3-5 years behind their average American counterpart who will start working in low level minimum wage jobs as early as 15 years. They build up references and preferences from an early age which enable them to make more informed and reliable choices by the time they reach the age of 18. Follow the link below and briefly familiarise yourself with the concept of work ethics and the difference it can make to an individual and a country.  Unfortunately, it is difficult for young people to become productive because of unique factors in our country but it is up to you as career guide practitioner to be part of the solution.


Competencies determine where and if you can enter the world of work.  However, you also need to become aware of the facts regarding the present and future world of work AND increase your knowledge and skills regarding the present and future world of work to change people’s opportunities.

All the motivation and reasons for knowledge acquisition are found in the reports in Activity 1 below. These reports are published every year and they keep you up to date with the size and nature of our gaps. Both reports state that access to knowledge and the ability to grasp or interpret that knowledge is the key separator or stratifier between rich and poor.

PCAR03X, Unit 4, Activity 1

  1. Download the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Report and view the gaps between rich and poor to become aware of the level and reasons why the rich and poor stay apart.  Consider how this knowledge can assist you in motivating people to gain the competencies and join the successful communities and societies matched to their personal choices of industry and work. You will use the same techniques to convince career seekers to build bridges and make their own plans for work access and growth.
  2. Discuss what you have learnt with your study colleagues.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or Google search to explore and discover matching areas. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Answer the following questions:
  • How can you use the above information to convince people we are separated by what we know and by our exposure? Write down two specific uses for each.
  • Think about a structured way to use the information to enthuse people into taking action. Write down two actions they can take right now!

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


You should now know that all resources are readily available and accessible by people with workplace exposure and requisite competencies. If you approach a company or government with no experience or no qualifications asking for help, they will most certainly not pay much attention to you let alone give you access to resources. If you, however, approach them with a plan with experience or with credible qualifications, they will see you as part of the solution to a problem and not the problem itself. You thus come with the support of the leaders in your community and/or a company or institution which makes you a safer investment rather than a risky expense. As career guidance practitioner you should be able to see where you fit in and how you should present yourself as part of the solution and not the problem.

This is the way in which you should gain access and exposure to work opportunities:

  • Awareness through engagement and exposure [please refer to unit in which student was taught to do this],
  • Acquire knowledge about the workplace
  • ICT competencies and access by using the web (World Wide Web or WWW)
  • Communication competencies and communication with leaders
  • Relationships with working people and leaders
  • Practice in peer groups at home and with friends

The working people in your close proximity form part of the broader successful community. They have access to their workplace and from there can generate further access for you to investigate.

The gaps in the CV/resumes of those not finding jobs clearly show that they have not shown initiative to gain work experience. Remember that if you start as a poorly paid messenger, this does not mean you will stay at that level for the rest of your life.  Typical gaps in a CV are regarding the following competencies:

  • Access to knowledge
  • Past experience or exposure enabling one to grasp and apply the knowledge.
  • English language comprehension and a reading speed of at least 250 words a minute and with an 85% comprehension score
  • Internet access to access the knowledge
  • A desire to serve others to build relationships in chosen communities of industry, expertise and support
  • Knowledge of the gaps and a plan to bridge these gaps.

When you yourself as PCAR student have mastered these competencies, you are guaranteed access to a vast range of job opportunities. In turn, you can now guide career seekers to help them highlight their gaps and find the solutions by filling the gaps. Remember always show the solution first.

PCAR03X, Unit 4, Activity 2

  1. How can you facilitate access to the world of work for career seekers?
  2. Opportunities are almost limitless for the right competencies.  However, how do you use self-drive and self-education to get there?  In addition, what opportunities exist with the necessary resources and structures?
  3. Discuss what you learnt with your study colleagues.
  4. Use Dictionary, Wikipedia or Google and
  5. Answer the following questions:
  • How can a better work ethic benefit both young and old? Name two factors for each (Refer back to Module 1 Unit 5 to recap values).
  • Taking the above information into account, make a list of five prominent gaps that you yourself have in your own personal CV. With the new knowledge, give five solutions to filling those gaps. These can include further education, more work experience or extending your network.

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


Do you agree that:

  • People are isolated from work opportunities through the lack of communication skills, ownership for themselves and clear plans of action to bridge the divide?
  • Jobs, resources, opportunities and challenges are freely available in South Africa?
  • Your own awareness and courage to use the resources to fill the gaps in your CV is all that was missing? If you feel that you still are not sure how to fill the gaps in your CV, you need to work through this module again, and specifically mention your problem in your MiActivityBook.


We often make the mistake of concerning ourselves with the problem to such an extent that even the solution eventually becomes part of the problem. The above information should get you into a solution based frame of mind, where the focus does not lie in defining the problem but rather in finding a logical solution. Such a solution should provide a means to an end. The solution is simple in its essence but complex in its implementation.

It is up to you as career guidance practitioner to

  • Use the tools you have acquired in previous exercises to increase an individual’s awareness of the opportunities around him/her.
  • Guide him/her regarding what needs to be done and how to take advantage of the solutions.
  • Instil an attitude of personal ownership, planning and initiating.
  • Help the career seeker to approach his/her leaders and those with resources with a plan that warrants attention and success.
  • Introduce people to the internet and its benefits.
  • Mobilise your community.
  • Help people realise the value embedded in their extending communities.


The economy grows to accommodate all people. This is due to the new world of work’s ability to change rapidly. Type “economy grows with competencies” into Google search and see what happens!

“The world of work is changing”. Type this phrase into Google; choose some web sites that interest you.  Can you see how much the workplace has changed, and the fun you can have once you understand this? However, if you do not embrace change and prepare for continuous change, it is not exciting and exhilarating but threatening. Be aware of change, stay with it, and drive it. When you initiate change, you will always be at its forefront. Otherwise, you might become the victim of change and by doing so you set yourself up to be left behind. This is the nature of the new world of work. The only way you can stay ahead is by keeping yourself up to date with the latest knowledge and growth trends within your chosen profession or industry.

PCAR03X, Unit 4, Activity 3

  1. View the changing world of work web site and view the preparation required for the new world of work. There are limitless jobs and business opportunities for people with the right competencies.  Consider how it can assist you in motivating people to gain the competencies and to join successful communities and societies. Which are matched to their personal choices of industry and work?  You will use the same techniques to help career seekers to build bridges and make their own plans for work access and growth.
  2. Discuss what you learnt with your study colleagues.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or Google search to explore and discover matching areas. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Answer the following questions:
  • How can you use the above information to convince people that everyone can know what they want and plan for the new world of work? Write down two specific uses for each.
  • Think about a structured way to use the information to enthuse people to take action. Write down two actions they can take right now! An example is creating motivation through relevant information and exposure.

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


Module 4 guides you to help your clients implement what they learned from you about the aspects of the self, skills and knowledge. You and your clients will:

  • Grow your awareness of the world of work
  • Grow your knowledge to access the world of work
  • Use ICT for communication and access to the WWW (to keep moving life long)
  • Communicate using understandable English and suitable numeracy
  • Build relationships with people in work and with right resources
  • Make a contribution to others close to you
  • Practise these skills at home, with friends and use them in the work place.

Is this a difficult task? Not if you serious about becoming a worthwhile career guidance practitioner. The easy things you can do immediately to prepare, enter, and thrive in the new world of work are described and explained from Module 1 through to where we are now. We were careful to ensure that you and your career seeker clients can master each step. Here are the steps you need to take:

1.         The first step is for you to believe what you have read and learnt in PCAR.

2.         The next step is to help other people come to similar conclusions and realisations.


You now know there are many jobs available in South Africa. People who come to you as clients seeking jobs should also know this. You know that specific competencies coupled with an action plan ensure access to jobs. Your clients need to know this too. In order to do this, you must help your clients become aware of their work preferences and to be knowledgeable about their industry of choice, specifically their work of choice within that industry.  Then you should assist them to plan a written work access plan which they are prepared to follow and implement.

At this stage of the Programme for Career Guidance Practitioners, you know enough about the world of work to give your clients a vision of themselves in a specific job in the world of work. The competencies which you have acquired for yourself as career guidance practitioner will set you on the path to join successful people. Your success helps you to invest in the future of others and achieve further personal success! Just like Bill Gates did.

Key questions

  • What is a community?
  • How can you leverage opportunities, expertise and resources in existing communities?
  • What keeps people apart or stratified?
  • What removes the barriers?

In this module we emphasise once more the value of serving people who are active in business, civic and civil communities.  What do I mean when I ask about serving people? You need to see the wider definition of a community by looking at the detail of employers and their employees. Once you have gained knowledge about the jobs in your community you will be in a position to identify needs (job opportunities) in the employment market. You can then pass this information on to career seekers who in turn can share their knowledge with their families and friends.

While you are engineering the exposure of employers to community members, you remain the facilitator and guide who helps the career seeker develop and implement productivity and growth plans.

The challenge is to start immediately by linking with the various work communities in the area where you live.


What constitutes the wider community?  Communities consist of the people within them and the links those people have with other communities. Communities are based on geographic location as well as being formed through common interests. In the tangible or physical sense we are always part of a family, the community where we live, an ethnic group, our nation and the globe. We also choose to be part of communities drawn together because of common interests, beliefs, values and occupations. The successful utilisation of these communities and the relationships within depend on your learning to manage these multiple communities simultaneously. Each one who is not yet productive or who wants to be more productive is your direct concern and his/her joblessness impacts heavily on the community in which he/she lives. These communities need you to be an active career guidance practitioner who leads the way to employment for all who want to learn about themselves and work.

PCAR03X, Unit 3, Activity 1

  1. Study the community and social principles.  Consider how it can assist you to choose and join communities and societies to match your industry and work choice. Once you have done this for yourself, you will be able to use the same techniques to help career seekers find their work match.
  2. Discuss what you learnt with your study colleagues.
  3. Use Dictionary, Wikipedia or Google and conduct an extensive search to learn more about communities and societies and how they function and benefit each other. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. Are you inspired by this information to think about the way in which you formulate questions that you ask clients? It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Answer the following questions:
  • How do you plan to access and use communities and societies as resources for your career guidance process? Write down two specific plans for each.
  • Think about a structured way in which you can grow with your own community and society. Write down two examples.
  • Use examples of communities and societies that you actually plan to access.

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


You now know that both a community and society can be formed in and by any local group linked to other groups. Your community and society have the potential to be as wide as you choose them to be. How can this be? All you need to do is to create a larger network in order to link your community with others.

The question to ask is:  How can you create such a large network? You need to link people in your geographical community to other communities and societies. While you are doing this, you will gain competencies and help them be more productive.

What can you do so that you and your community members will all learn more, know more, do more and earn more? You need to have the backing of your community and your community leaders for the career guidance service which you intend to offer. In this manner, you ensure that they will be there for you when you move. You will need to pass on this skill to career seekers as they too will need their own backup systems when they apply for positions.

How can you utilise your community’s activities in order to enhance the community members’ knowledge about career choices? How can you encourage them to climb their own knowledge and career ladders?  Explain to them that they will be productive and happy members of their own community because they form part of many communities and societies, such as:

  • Families and where they come from
  • The area where they currently live
  • Common interest communities as in sport
  • Common interest communities as in hobbies such as photography, etc.
  • Work communities
  • Travel communities
  • Internet communities
  • Church communities
  • Cultural communities
  • AND if they follow the process of building networks in their community, they will be a productive member of the work community.


People are generally separated from each other in some or other way. A prominent separation with a great effect on people’s lives is stratification. In sociological terms it means the hierarchical division according to caste, rank or class. In this context we are mainly focussed on stratification through class, and its cause which is knowledge based division.

There are, however, ways to overcome stratification and the effects thereof. Stratification can be bridged by facilitating access to people with resources through communities. Your task is to understand the nature of the problem and to accept that the more fortunate cannot reach out to the less fortunate (and visa versa) due to misinformation and insufficient skills.

Is this a fact which we have to accept? Or is it merely a problem to which a solution can be found? Of course, the problem can be solved, and you are part of the solution.

PCAR03X, Unit 3, Activity 2

  1. Consider how stratification and social stratification it can assist you to bridge the barriers that keep you or the career seeker from accessing work competencies and thus further opportunities.
  2. Discuss what you have learnt with your study colleagues.
  3. Use Dictionary, Wikipedia or Google and conduct an extensive search to learn more about stratification and its effects.  Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Answer the following questions:
  • How can you access and use communities and societies to eliminate stratifiers? Write down two specific uses for each.
  • Think about a structured way to grow with communities and societies to eliminate stratification. Write down two of your plans.
  • Suggest how people with little awareness can gain exposure to and start bridging the gaps in knowledge and experience to eliminate the personal factors cause individual stratification.

Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


The most important ways to gain access to resources would be to access people in organisations, associations, civil and civic networks or communities.  The career guidance practitioner guides these groups to meet and facilitate flow of resources and access to competencies, resources and thus work.


There are many bridges which you can cross to access communities and societies. These bridges will support the career seeker. When people get to know each other, it is usually mutually beneficial and as a result the stratifiers disappear.

In Module 5 you will use the knowledge of communities, societies and stratification to connect career seekers to industries and to training/the work of their choice. The PCAR career guidance course empowers you to prepare career seekers to access people in communities and societies with resources and opportunities.

Local resources must be found and utilised. The Department of Labour renders a service regarding different careers.  According to Aitken (sj: 138), the Department of Labour offers vocational guidance and psychometric testing free of charge to students over the age of 16 who are in Grade 12. This service is also offered to workers who are unhappy in their present employment. The Department of Labour also publishes a bilingual book (My Career), which describes approximately 500 careers in a fair amount of detail.

Find a more up to date occupational handbookSouth African references to the occupational handbook


Your personal insight and understanding of the process of entering the job market, as well as your participation in creating networks in your communities and societies will create access to knowledge and resources for career seekers.

Your experience regarding accessing leaders in local business, civic and civil communities and societies will directly benefit job seekers.

Your geographical community is just one such example. Serve your leaders and you help them grow while you grow with them. They will and can help you access resources and institutions and it will thus generate mutual benefit.

Key questions

  • What do parents, family and friends mean to the career seeker?
  • How do you apply the knowledge that you have gained about yourself?
  • How would you remove limitations to communicating and finding career opportunities?


This module has two focal points.  It looks at the use of knowledge that you have gained about yourself (after working through Modules 1 & 2); and it looks at how to involve and inform parents and family. Up to this point you have gained some insight into personality, aptitude, abilities, interests, values and careers in general.  It is now important to apply the knowledge about these concepts to inform parents, family, and friends, to say thank you (do you remember how this was explained in PCAR03X: Unit 1?) and to attract resources to implement your work access campaign. Inform them regarding your personality, your abilities and values and what possible careers will suit you best. Remember that this is the same process your career seeker clients will follow. It is important for you to go through the same process to be able to help and guide your future clients effectively.


PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 1

  1. Open http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venn_diagram and http://www.logictutorial.com/ and study the Venn diagram again.  Also, refer back to Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/103/2007.
  2. You have already explored your interests, values, aptitude, and abilities.  Now you need to enter this into the Venn diagram to see how it overlaps and determines your passions.  Use the Venn diagram from Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/103/2007 and discover what it is that you have not yet shared with your parents, family and friends. Use the structured results from your exercises in Module 1 and preparation for communication in Module 2 and share what you have discovered.
  3. You will use the words which you discovered by completing Module 1 (use the adjectives from the Johari window from PCAR01V/103/2007 as a guideline) to enter in to the Venn diagram.  Use the Venn diagram below as a structure and let others complete it with you.  Discuss the results with parents, family and friends.
  4. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  5. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments


You will find that after completing the Venn diagram on your aptitude, personality, interest and values, you will be able to communicate your own personal qualities to your parents, family and friends more easily.

PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 2

  1. What do you think is the value of knowing yourself with regard to your personality, aptitude, interest and values, for a career choice?   Briefly write down five points about the importance of knowing yourself.
  2. Discuss your ideas about knowledge of yourself as a basis for a responsible career choice with your study colleagues, family or friends.
  3. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  4. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.


Do you remember that choosing a career implies that you are going to be active in a certain career field for at least eight hours per day?  Will you be able to do the work that is expected of you and will you find it interesting enough to spend all that time at it? Do you have the necessary ability to use your talents or do you need training to become competent?

You must remember that the way that you see yourself should determine your career choice.  However, in the next section, attention will be given to the way that your parents, friends or family see you regarding your personality, aptitude, interest and values. Their opinion regarding your personal qualities will give you greater insight into yourself.


You will gain access to social networks and support by informing the important people in your life about your work preferences and opportunities. The career seeker will, however, require firm support during these change processes.[1] You as career guidance practitioner should transfer your knowledge and skills of the processes involved in informing and support to your career seeker.

Keep in mind that parents, family and friends:

  • give verbal input regarding the different careers which you might be considering, and
  • unconsciously model their specific careers to you and your community.  Therefore, be careful not to explore too many other career opportunities and miss the obvious career choices around you!

PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 3

  1. Study the Johari window again.  Also, refer back to tutorial letter PCAR01V/103/2007.
  2. Use the Johari window from PCAR01V/103/2007 and discover what it is that you have not yet shared with your parents, family or friends. Use the structured results from your exercises in Module 1 in preparation for communication in Module 2 and share what you have discovered.  As author, I would like to thank Plug, Meyer, Louw and Gouws (1991:168) for their specific applications of the Johari window.
  3. Make a page with the four quadrants. Use the Johari window, (Figure 3.2 below) as an example) and let others complete it with you.
  4. Capture your personal experiences and discoveries in your MiCareerBook for the CV exercises.
  5. Record your experiences while completing the above activities in your MiActivity Book as part of your assignments.
  6. This is an example of a career related use of the Johari window as described by Gouws and Kruger (1994:164). Please complete it as part of PCAR03X, Unit 2, Activity 3.

Figure 3.2 The Johari window applied to a career seeker


Personality ……………………………………………..



Aptitude ………………………………………………….



Interest …………………………………………………..



Values ……………………………………………………



Personality ……………………………………………..



Aptitude ………………………………………………….



Interest …………………………………………………..



Values ……………………………………………………



Personality ……………………………………………..



Aptitude ………………………………………………….



Interest …………………………………………………..



Values ……………………………………………………




Did you learn anything new about yourself by completing the Johari window?  You can use these processes with family, friends, family and local leaders in the workplace. As a result the people around you will get to know you and during your discussion with them, you will get to know them to a certain extent. Getting exposure to each other and your willingness to share your intrapersonal qualities with them will contribute to reducing possible prejudice and bias and the meeting might even provide a working environment that might be available to you in the future. Meeting each other, thanking them for the opportunity for discussion and sharing information about yourself make for a safe growing experience for all.


Unlike urban youths, young people in rural and remote areas generally have to leave home to attend secondary school. They most certainly have to go to urban centres to do any type of training, which can put them on a career path.  Children from the rural areas do not have the same background knowledge on career and study possibilities as their urban friends due to limited exposure to the few careers that their community members have. Obviously a smaller variety of job opportunities is available to them in their rural areas.   Most career-related information and resources are located in distant centres which are inaccessible to most rural families.  Professionals, who have the required career-related knowledge, are concentrated in larger urban settings (Jeffery, Lehr, Hache & Campbell 1992:240-241).

Jeffery et al. (1992:241) found from their research in rural parts that the major problems faced by rural parents were lack of career-related information and lack of knowledge on how to obtain available information.  They came to the conclusion that parents were not adequately equipped to assist their children in making job choices, e.g. in terms of information about the range of jobs available and in understanding what certain jobs entail.

Jeffery et al.  (1992:246-248) did research in Canada and listed a number of hypotheses (expectations) to be verified in interviews with parents in rural areas.  The list was split into two groups: family, community and cultural reviews and job, career and labour-related concerns.

It would be interesting to note the outcomes of similar research under South African circumstances!

Read carefully through the list of hypotheses/expectations.  What would you predict the outcome of research in South Africa to be? For interest’s sake indicate your view in the true or false column provided.
Family, community and cultural concerns TRUE FALSE
1           Problems result from very close bonding of the young person to parents, peers, home and community.

2          Widely held beliefs that home communities are the best or only place to be (ethnocentrism).

3          Fears held by young persons and perhaps parents that young people are unable to compete successfully elsewhere.

4          Situations where the young person is socialised into non-creative solutions/non-provocative stances when it comes to the pursuit of careers.

5          Many members of the community (the potential role models for both the parents and the youth) demonstrate that they have adapted successfully to what is, in many respects, a difficult local situation.  In other words, there are many role models who are “surviving” as unemployed people.

6          Many gender-related issues and problems.

7          Problems resulting from early pregnancies.

8          Widely held views that it is easier and cheaper to stay at or near home.

9          Inter-generational patterns of welfare or unemployment insurance dependency.

10         Common parental strategies, which encourage the young person to return home when there is stress.

11         A limited number of role models in communities capable of demonstrating good career decision-making skills.

12         Tendencies for young people (who leave the home community for career purposes) to go primarily to those settings where there already is a support network rather than to unfamiliar communities.

13         Greater problems for youths associated with leaving the old situation, than with their ability to cope with a new situation.

14         People have problems because of substance abuse.

Jobs, career and labour market information concerns TRUE FALSE
1           An absence of jobs available in the area.

2          An absence of information on places (local or distant) where one might get work.

3          A limited amount of knowledge about the wide range of career options that exist.

4          Limited parental and youth knowledge about how to identify persons or services that can supply them with or lead them to information.

5          A lack of parental and youth awareness that there are often support services in a new community from which they might seek help (i.e. churches and social clubs).

6          An extensive misinformation about what it is like in other centres.

7          A relative absence of “mentors” or persons who encourage or challenge youth to search more widely.

8         A relative absence of parents with strategies for finding work.


An analysis of the data collected in Canada by Jeffery et al (1992:249) supported many of the hypotheses in the above table. This meant that their expectations were well founded.

However, it was found that parents expected and supported youth to leave the community.  Furthermore, no support was found for the hypothesised notion that parents encourage their children to return home if confronted with stressful situations when away.   Parents also knew that career identification and problems existed and tried hard to identify solutions.

Parents also expressed the view that because of their lack of education, they did not see themselves as good role models for their children.  They also felt that they lacked adequate experience and knowledge to offer sound educational advice.

If the same problems regarding career guidance by rural parents occurred in South Africa, what assistance could be given to them to help them to prepare themselves to guide their children in a career choice? Remember, you intend to guide people in your community regarding their choice of careers!


I would like to make a few suggestions for you to add to the ideas which you might have. Is it possible to bring rural career seekers closer to the same processes that successful workplace families already have? This could be done by exposing them to successful and advantaged people.  How is this done? You could arrange to bridge the difference between them and successful workers by accessing successful work people through civil and civic organizations. You could help the rural career seekers to communicate their knowledge and interests to their parents, family and community members. Not only does this give them the opportunity to practise speaking about themselves, but it will prevent them from isolating themselves from the community. Instead they will raise the knowledge and awareness of the jobs to which they have been exposed within the community as a whole.

You also need to assist parents to assist young people during the transition from home to work.  Parents and leaders should be briefed during the processes to obtain and participate in the information exchange on careers and jobs.  Under your guidance, community leaders could assist parents to form groups for discussion about careers and educational activities. The following information is important and should be included in the communication:

  • finding career information
  • coping with the problems of registration, loans, insurance, etc.
  • helping children to leave home
  • coping with loneliness and relocation problems
  • helping young people anticipate and deal with their new freedom
  • helping young people maintain a pride in their roots
  • helping young people cope with fears of being “different”
  • communicating with and staying in contact when a young person is away

Remember that extensive web resources exist and the leaders’ involvement makes the choices safer.


Successful families have structures in place which remove barriers to communication with their children. A circle of families can offer many possible opportunities to the children of their friends. Access and knowledge are shared freely for the sole purpose of adding value to young people and offering them opportunities in life.  In rural areas this is not possible. The only option is thus to increase knowledge about career opportunities by creating a partnership between the youth and the older community. Everyone learns and everyone grows and this will continue to benefit the community for generations to come.

It is therefore important for you as career guide to practise the process of informing the people around you about your own personal qualities (your own Johari window) and about the career opportunities which you can offer them.  You need to help the career seeker use the same strategies as successfully as you have done to avoid their isolation and to promote knowledge distribution among the people in the community.

[1] The change process refers to the transition from a current state to a desired state.  Explore this website about managing the change process.


This overview provides an overall view of what you will learn in this module.  You will find it useful to refer back to this page after completing each unit to see how the content fits into the bigger picture.

The suggested timetable for each unit is one week.  That means that you will be able to finish the unit within two months.  If you keep to this schedule, you will have two weeks at the end of this module to complete your assignment.








In this module you and, in future, your career seekers will be acquainted with the social network of parents, family, friends, the community and the employer.  Although knowledge of your personal qualities is very important in choosing of work linked to career building, you should also consider social networks when choosing work to build careers.  You helped the career seekers determine their own personal qualities by using Module 1 and prepared them for external communication in Module 2.  These three partners (the parent, community and employer) play an important role in supporting your final choice of work to build your career.

Since work is plentiful for competent people, you need to inform, explain and show parents, community and possible workplaces evidence of your competence. You need to know the gaps between the requirements and your competences, plan to bridge them and thus access the work of your choice.  In this regard, we agree with Nelson (1980:1) who said, “Both the individual and society must benefit when people are employed doing what they are best able to do and most enjoy …”

The people in your community and at home must understand your work preferences and traits. Support from home and the community is vital for success and access to work. The support becomes important when you or the career seeker requires access to resources, support or bridging of competencies. These processes will help you and the career seeker to communicate what you have explored and discovered in Module 1 and prepared in Module 2. Use the tutorial processes from PCAR01V/102/2007 to assist you to implement the processes and communicate them to others. You learn vital competencies via this process.  As career guide, you will pass on the communication competencies to the career seeker. Informing others will enable them to offer you support, input and often attract the resources you require for success.

Many young people often find their first job opportunities and gain work experience by simply informing and saying thank you to people in the community.

Informing parents, the community and the workplace of job opportunities available for competent people utilises the communication processes you are familiar with from Tutorials PCAR01V/102/2007 and PCAR01V/103/2007. Simply start finding reasons to say thank you to people in your family, your leaders in your community and nearby communities and people within the workplace. What are you thanking them for? It might be for the example which they have set; or it might be that they currently employ people who are helping you or who have been placed there with your help; or you might value the way in which they serve the community – any genuine aspect or action which you appreciate is a good reason to thank them for being in your life.  You will be amazed at the power of attraction a genuine “Thank you!” can generate as it often takes people by surprise. How often has anybody really seen what you have done and pointed out the value which you have added to your community? This is what your “Thank you!” tells them – they realise that they are appreciated and valued. This realisation in turn creates a context from which you can access new opportunities and may even open up further doors to such resources.

All these processes and social interaction are inherent to people. You too can be observant and find something that you appreciate in your context. You have felt the pleasure of being appreciated – even if it is with a simple heartfelt “Thank you!” In this module, you receive some guidance and support in revealing your internal personal qualities (intrapersonal qualities).  Doing this will benefit both you and the people around you.

Key questions

  • Can you use choose and use questions and questionnaires to help people explore and discover their industries, work and building careers?
  • Can you use interviews to challenge and guide people to choose careers and take action?
  • Can you guide your clients to engage working people in the industries of choice, contribute to them and learn from them?
  • Can you apply the information from PCAR01V in PCAR02W?


You are now prepared to gain and share information while communicating with others about career choices. You are also ready to let career seekers experience the same processes for themselves and to develop their abilities through interviews, questionnaires and by building relationships based upon preferences and traits discovered through exploration and discovery.  You can use open and closed questions and you have chosen questionnaires from the Internet to make your explorations and discoveries available for public use.  You will now repeat the process with career seekers and prepare them for public communication in a similar fashion.

You will re-apply the career guidance process for your clients the same way you used the processes to prepare yourself for your communication with your family, community and in your work of choice.  As a career guidance practitioner you will also communicate and transmit the communication competencies and preparation for a career to the career seeker. The aim of this unit is to assess to what extent you have prepared yourself for PCAR03X.  This will be made clear through your own preparation for your communication by practising with the same career seeker group from Assignment 1 in PCAR01V.

Please refer to PCAR02W/101/2008 for further guidance to complete and submit Assignment 01 of Module 2. PCAR02W/101/2008 confirms that Assignment 01 for PCAR02W consists of five activities which have to be completed in real life. Did you realise that the Assignment number stays the same, but the module code changed? You are given the opportunity to get the career seekers of the group you worked with in the Assignment of PCAR01V Unit 7&8, to validate that they have benefited from the work, which you have done with them.

Assignment 01, PCAR02W, Unit 5, Activity 1

Carefully plan a discussion that you intend on holding with the chosen group of people.  In this discussion you will illustrate how the career seekers themselves will prepare to communicate their traits, preferences and industry of choice to their family, community and work of choice.  In other words, you will guide them to build their network.

Try working with the people whom you engaged in the previous assignment.  You already have a relationship with them.  Keep in mind that this assignment builds on your previous work and conversations with the career seeker group.  They might want to finish this career/job seeking process!  However, you can also continue to use your two partners if you struggled to gather a career seeker group.  Help them to update their MiCareer Book and BLOG. Combine the Blog with the MiCareer Book as it serves as an online reference to be used by the owner.

You have already learned about the career seekers’ (your clients or group members) various aptitudes, skills, strengths and communication ability.  You have helped them become aware of these attributes and any possible gaps which they should give attention to or take into consideration when they go job hunting.  By now, the career seeker should have a list of two to five possible job opportunities in accordance with their interests and attributes. Are they trying to bridge the gaps in requirements for access to the jobs?  Are they starting to become consciously aware of the opportunities that are available to them once they gain access and educate themselves?

  • Capture this experience (their growth and awareness) and the learning curve in your own words in your MiCareer Book.


Assignment 01, PCAR02W, Unit 5, Activity 2

Review the career seekers’ information from the PCAR01V assignment and choose from the free web free questionnaires and questions for each one of the topics (personality, interest, aptitude, values and interests).Verify your examples of questionnaires with your two partners before you use them with your group.

  • Prepare for a session where you explain the use of questions and questionnaires that assist the career seeker to explore and discover work related traits and preferences.
  • Let the career seekers review their own information.  They must learn to repeat this process throughout their lives.  So, let them practice to review the questions themselves, populate the Johari and communicate it to their family and friends.  Make sure they understand that these questions are answered contextually or within a specific situation. In other words, their situation or emotion and understanding of the words at the specific moment define their answers.  You must try to get the career seekers in the routine of exploring and discovering by themselves.
  • The career seeker now matches these discoveries with his/her studies, industry and work.  Demonstrate this process practically for each career seeker in the group (see next section).
  • Remember to capture your experiences and learning curve in your MiCareer Book.


You already practised questioning and interviewing during the activities in your own groups.  After fulfilling each one of the following three roles, namely the role of facilitator, observer and candidate (repeating the session three times) you should feel more comfortable about presenting your talks to career seeker groups.

Assignment 01, PCAR02W, Unit 5, Activity 3

If possible, work in groups of two to three, with the career seekers.  Let them participate in the roles of the observer and the candidate.

  • Explain and exchange the roles after you have finished the interview with the first candidate.  Each time the career seekers observe the process from a different perspective. Observing this process several times creates greater awareness of the processes for the career seekers!
  • Use critical questionnaires and critical questioning (open and close-ended questions) to challenge how and whether the traits of the career seekers match with their chosen area of study, industry and work choice.  The process lets them expand their choices and grow their communication skills at the same time. Apply the processes and let them use the questionnaires and questioning to each of their areas of personality, interest, talent and aptitude.  Make sure you use the websites from PCAR02W, Unit 3 and Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/103/2008 when preparing for the interviews).
  • Remember to capture your experiences and learning curve in your MiCareer Book.


Assignment 01, PCAR02W, Unit 5, Activity 4

  • Apply the process outlined in Section 5.3.
  • Show examples of old relationships and suggest possible new ones that can be built to fit work and industry access, matched to their individual traits and interests. Remember how selected relationships can benefit any individual in any field.
  • Remember to capture your experiences and learning curve in your MiCareer Book.


You have explored and discovered your own personal information and you have applied the process to access personal information in small groups.  It is now time for the summary of your MiCareer Book for public use.  Remember that you need to experience all the processes in order to guide career seekers to experience the same. Therefore, you need to prepare yourself for communication with members of the world of work and you need to prepare your career seekers to do the same.

Assignment 01, PCAR02W, Unit 5, Activity 5

Open http://www.ioljobs.co.za/.  This website will guide you in compiling a CV.  Then, if you want to go more advanced, open http://www.alec.co.uk/. Now you can go and find websites that suits you and have resumes for your industries.

Remember to use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search extensively to learn more about the subject and to find your own websites.

Compile a short CV in which you describe your discovery process:

  1. Your traits and work preferences
  2. The careers/industry areas that you are interested in
  3. The gaps you need to bridge
  4. The plan to bridge these gaps and
  5. At least one business or employment prospect.
  • Help the career seekers you worked with in the group to gather and compile the same information.
  • Make a summary of each one of the three CV’s and submit these summaries as part of your assignment for PCAR02W.
  • Include aspects from the process of constructing the CV’s that you feel are most important.  Use the information that you gathered in your MiCareer Book to compile a piece where you communicate what you have learnt, and make notes about what you can improve on.  Also, note the aspects that went well and that you are pleased with.  Submit this piece as part of your assignments for PCAR02W
  • Discuss the summary with your group members and make sure to listen carefully so that they can help you create your summary.  The successful implementation of the exploration and discovery process with your group therefore determines the level of success in this module.


At the end of doing and recording the items in all the above sections, you need to complete Assignment 01 for PCAR02W by writing a suitable introduction and conclusion.  Arrange all of the above in a folder and hand it in at UNISA.  Submit your project to Unisa in the correct manner as you have been requested to do in PCAR02W/101/2008.  Also, post your assignment on your Blog.  This will serve as a footprint for potential career seekers in the future.

You are now prepared to communicate what you have learnt to a group of career seekers. You will include practical examples and real life experiences. You are therefore not just completing a course but also a practical training exercise with real experiences to present as evidence. It is possible to help people around you but first we practise how to effectively communicate the value you can add to your clients. We will do this through practising in a safe environment such as your group again. Please refer to the specific section where the first practice round took place.

Congratulations on working through your second module! You will have successfully completed it once you have submitted your assignment and been awarded a mark which states that you have been found to be competent (60% and above).

Now you should be ready for the next exciting experiences.

Key questions

  • How do we uncover gaps in relationships and make plans to bridge them?
  • What is sociometry with regards to choosing relationships or networks for success?
  • What are social networks?
  • How do we organise sociometric and social networks to understand our choice of relationships?
  • What are the limitations of sociometric data?


By now the career seeker, who is your client, should be aware of his/her opportunities and preferences.  The career seeker should also by now be able to apply the career exploration, discovery and communication processes.

Consider the following case study:

Mpho is considering a midlife career change to grow his contribution to society and earn more. He is struggling to integrate new experiences, interests and relationships.  He needs to build a network consisting of experienced people so that he can learn from them.  Mpho also needs to discover the gaps in the areas of his relationships and make plans and take action to bridge them. We can also state this differently: How do we know what our strengths in relationships are and how can we make plans to grow and apply them?

Mpho visits you as his career guidance practitioner to gain more insight. Using sociometry you are able to help Mpho answer this question: How can he make and apply plans regarding the growth and application of his own strengths in developing required relationships?


Sociometry and social networks are techniques used to explore and become aware of interpersonal relationships throughout existing and new networks. You need to explore the participation of your client in networks and gain insight into current networks through a sociogram.  You might establish that your client

  • does not have insight into the functioning of members in a network
  • does not realise the importance of having access to a network
  • has access to a network/s, but does not utilise this access in his/her favour.

Members of networks use personal data regarding themselves and the purpose of the network to grow their relationships required for their work or goals. PCAR01V/102/2008 and PCAR01V/103/2008 contain tools like the Johari window, which can be used to assess the functioning of the individual within networks. This is to say that they know in which aspect of the group they will function best, be it writing, public speaking, presenting, organising etc. This knowledge can be applied to grow intra personal knowledge and facilitate introspection into your relationships.

Remember that the sociometric and social network processes raise your awareness of your current relationships, why you maintain them and what relationships you require for real success. One of the outcomes of an understanding of the importance of social networks is to build relationships and networks with people of your choice and to learn from them while you share your personal resources (knowledge, experience and values) with them. In this manner, you add value to them, gain from them and create a win-win situation.

Support your preferences of work and industry (selected in PCAR01V) by networking in the next modules. In this unit, we heighten your awareness of current links and networks. You must develop your personal development plan to access and contribute to networks locally, nationally and internationally.

Choose the people you associate with carefully. Partake in activities that will allow you to extend your network in your desired field. This includes the real life projects of which you choose to be a part. These relationships are like capital for future choices and productivity. People in your network are developed through deliberate choice by using your specific traits and preferences. These are principles you should apply throughout your career. Opportunity comes with people and this will help you gain access to both.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 1

  1. Open http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociometry http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_networking_websites
  2. Study the sociometric principles and identify how you would use them to increase your levels of success and grow your network.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search extensively to learn more about the subject. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Discuss with your study colleagues, since each person grows relationships differently!
  5. Useful Sociometric tools can be applied widely in relationship building.
  6. Answer the following:
  • Where and how can you use networking which is aligned with your choices? (Refer to PCAR 01V).
  • How would you cultivate relationships differently from the manner in which your existing work group does? Write down two specific points.
  • Study http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_world_phenomenon and general networking. Investigate the exploration and discoveries of PCAR01V and explore interviews more widely. Discuss your findings with your study group. Practise your newly found skills on them. By doing this you will develop the skills required for effective networking and you will also be able to help your client more effectively.

Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.





On completion of the above task you will begin to understand the importance and value of a network. Networking opens up doors and opportunities that would otherwise be very difficult for you as an individual to access. By building networks you also develop trust relationships and acquire other people’s trusted networks. Your entry and access to people who can contribute to your personal growth, therefore increases exponentially.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 2

  1. Refer to your own information from your gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the candidate and use your new awareness of social networks to become aware of relationships (existing and required). How would you grow one new relationship that will further your career options while growing awareness of interests, talents, aptitude, industry exposure and work choice?
  3. Write down an open and a closed question that will help you establish how your client can use sociometric principles and networking to grow his/her network. When your client uses these questions, he/she will become aware of the benefits that go with a wide network and good social relationships. .
  4. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.



Each person cultivates relationships differently. Be aware of the differences in your group. All of us have our preferences in how we like to build and maintain relationships e.g. meeting up with people at social gatherings for a drink or two or spending time with the people at your sports club or at the church. All of these are examples of places you can meet people, build relationships and form networks. Add value to others and they will introduce you to people you did not know before who can add value to you.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 3

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareer Book gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the Facilitator and guide the candidate to use his/her new awareness of social networks to become aware of relationships (existing and required).   How would you help the candidate to cultivate one new relationship that will further his/her career options while exploring interests, talents, aptitude, industry exposure and work choice?
  3. Where applicable use Dictionary, Wikipedia or a Google search to clarify words and concepts. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. New information gets you and your client thinking and creates an awareness of where you are.
  4. Write down how you facilitated the networking process to grow the career seeker’s current network to one that is closer to the one needed for success. This will include matching aspects such as interests, talents, aptitude, and industry exposure as well as work choice.
  5. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.


Be aware that the new networks will be limited by current knowledge and abilities to communicate.  Communication skills from PCAR01V/102/2008 and PCAR01V/103/2008 must be emphasised all the time. Let the career seekers emphasise The Johari Window and Transactional Analysis, as you have used them to grow your awareness, to gain knowledge about yourself and to find words to describe that knowledge.

Module 2, Unit 4, Activity 4

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareer Book gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the Observer while the facilitator in your study group guides the candidate to use his/her new awareness of social networks to become aware of relationships (existing and required).Take note of how people will interact and grow their interpersonal network differently according to their different interests, talents, aptitude, industry exposure and work choice. Observe these differences and remember that you can apply what you witness in your own context and experience as a Facilitator and Candidate.
  3. Where applicable, use Dictionary, Wikipedia or a Google search to clarify words and concepts.  The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask your clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Write down how you observed and gave feedback during networking with your current and required networks. Also write at least one personal lesson you learned from the experience that you can reapply when building your own and your future client’s networks.
  5. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.


Be aware that the new networks will be limited by current knowledge and abilities to communicate. Communication skills from PCAR01V/102/2008 and PCAR01V/103/2008 must be emphasised all the time. The career seekers will need practise to develop the ability to effectively communicate their aptitudes and talents to prospective employers and develop their career development and support network successfully.


In this unit we discussed sociometrics and social networks to become aware of choices about how to grow people in our networks as a medium to contribute to others. Contributions to others are mostly characterised by reciprocity: what you do to others, they do to you. You never require permission to make contributions to others. Contribution earns you and your clients access to resources and opportunities as explained in PCAR03X (Module 3).

In PCAR01V, Unit 4, we examined the use of networking to determine required access to industries and work skills. The practical application of sociometrics and social networks in PCAR03X will require you to refer back to this module. Always refer to relevant local and international websites, compare, and learn from the ones you used in this course and the ones you will use in the future.

Key questions

  • What is the purpose of an interview?
  • How are questions and questionnaires used in interviews?
  • How are observations used in interviews?
  • What kinds of interviews are there?
  • What are the features of a structured interview?
  • What problems are there with interviews? What can be done about them?
  • What is the procedure for doing an interview?


Mary wants to be a teacher. However, her parents believe that she should study to be a nurse. This makes Mary uncertain. Eventually she decides to go to Mrs Baloyi, a teacher who does career guidance, to help her resolve the issue. Initially they sit, talk, and discuss the issue at length.  Mrs Baloyi asks her numerous questions regarding her likes, dislikes and values.  Exploring and discovering helps her realise that she is indeed interested in similar careers in various industries. In addition, she realises that she can work while expressing her passion.

Mrs Baloyi helps her learners to form groups and visit different industries, schools, hospitals and identified businesses. Mary has thus been guided to do the personal exploration and discoveries mentioned in Module 1. She realises she can apply her talents in many areas and ways. She still enjoys playing with small children, looking after them and teaching them to sing and dance, but the entertainment industry, company crèches and many other jobs also offer appealing opportunities. She can now choose either to access the workplace and learn while she works, or to enter further education. She has learned where and how to apply for bursaries and other funding methods and what the requirements are.

Mrs Baloyi now uses the contents of PCAR03X (Module 3) to prepare Mary for interviews for further education, an industry of choice and work access.  PCAR0xX also guides Mary to inform and ask others for help in her preparation to gain successful access to education, industry of choice, resources, organisations and the Internet.


This course uses the same techniques that allowed you to explore and discover in preparation for your work and industry selection.  You will use this to guide the career seeker towards successful entry into university or college and access to the workplace.  One of these techniques is the interview.

The case study given above indicates one purpose of the interview.  Can you recognise it?  The above interview was used to guide and expand Mary’s awareness and to let her become aware of and explore and discover interests, aptitudes and values.  Although this is the main purpose of your interview with the career seeker, it is not the only purpose.  A list of uses of interviews includes:

  • Seeking information about a subject, person or company:  Giving information or transferring information through an interview (Wikipedia explain Rhetoric as the triangle of good communication in Ethos, Pathos and Logos)  Read about rhetoric and the three ways to persuade
  • Listening or therapeutic purposes, as in the therapeutic interview:  Sampling opinions, for example, to determine how many people will vote for a certain political party
  • Research or
  • Guiding a person to gain a better self-understanding and insight into job choices.

Module 2, Unit 3, Activity 1

  1. Study these Interview principles.  Consider how this can assist you to match your traits and preferences with industries. You will use the same techniques to help career seekers find their match.
  2. Discuss what you have learnt with colleagues who are studying with you.
  3. Use Dictionary, Wikipedia or a Google and conduct an extensive search to learn more about interviews.
  4. Remember that you are exploring and discovering and the information stimulate our thinking and creates an awareness of where we are and what we know.
  5. Study job interviews and general investigative interviews.  The aim of your study on interviews is to investigate what effect interviews have on your exploration and discovery from PCAR01V.
  6. Answer the following questions:
  • How can you use open and closed questions in an interview?
  • Write down two specific uses for each.
  • Think about the purposes of a structured way of asking questions in the context of an interview.
  • Write down two purposes.

Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Module 2, Unit 3, Activity 2

  1. Refer to your own information in your MiCareer that you gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the candidate. Let the facilitator interview you to investigate one area of your personality, interest, talent and aptitude. Remember that the idea is to focus on and find matching areas of your studies, industry of choice and work choice.
  3. Use Dictionary, Wikipedia and a Google search to explore and discover these matching areas.
  4. Write down an open and a closed question challenging or verifying the match for each area. You must clarify if, how and why the match exists.
  5. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Module 2, Unit 3, Activity 3

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareer that you gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Be the Facilitator while you guide the candidate to use interviews to investigate one item from his or her personality, interest, talent and aptitude. Focus on his or her studies, industry of choice and work choice.
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search to explore and discover matching areas. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask you clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  4. Write down how you facilitated an open and a closed question, challenging or verifying the match for each area.
  5. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.
  6. Discover more about being a facilitator.  Make use of Tutorial Letter PCAR01V/103/2008 for communication skills and websites like mindtools to improve your communication skills.  Remember, in order to get the most out of your interview, you need good communication skills!

Module 2, Unit 3, Activity 4

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareer that you gathered in PCAR01V.
  2. Act as an Observer while the facilitator guides the candidate with interviews,
  3. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search to explore and discover matching areas.
  4. Write down how you observed and gave feedback during open and closed questions used in the interview, challenging or verifying the match for each area.
  5. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.

Discover more about being the Observer.    Explore the Internet to find tips on giving and receiving feedback.  Both the role of the interviewer or the facilitator (the person who guides the conversation) and the interviewee or the candidate (the person who is the focus of the interview and answers the questions – also called the respondent) varies.  However, the facilitator and the candidate role have this in common: the one person seeks information, which is supplied by the other with the aim of achieving mutual benefit. The interviewee/candidate gives access to the interviewer/facilitator to what is ‘inside his/her head.’ As potential career guidance practitioner, you are training to be the facilitator for future clients.

As facilitator, it is your job to assist a person explore and discover his/her knowledge regarding  future career options, e.g. what a career seeker is interested in, his/her likes or dislikes (values and preferences) and their thoughts (attitudes and beliefs) by interviewing them.


Let us briefly return to our case study.  Mrs Baloyi aims to guide Mary. Mary will in turn achieve clarity about opportunities that match her interests and aptitudes. Mrs Baloyi asks the questions and is the interviewer.  Mary, on the other hand, explores, discovers and answers the questions and is the interviewee.


In the previous study unit, we discussed questions and questionnaires. We looked at how these are used to help you and your future clients make decisions regarding their future careers.   Interviews are personal and therefore people may be more positively inclined towards them.  However, this can be a time-consuming method.  Look at the following table and see whether you can decide what the advantages and disadvantages are of using questionnaires or interviews.

Place a D for disadvantage and an A for advantage next to the aspects which are disadvantages or advantages of each method.
Information is personally collected by the interviewer Information may be obtained by any person
Very personal Impersonal
Many opportunities for asking questions Questions limited to those on the questionnaire
Probing is possible – delving deeper into the matter Probing is difficult
One (or a few) persons at a time is normally interviewed Many people can answer a questionnaire simultaneously
Reliability is limited Reliability is fair
Interviewee need not be able to read and write Person completing the questionnaire needs to be able to read and write
Emphasis on interview skills of interviewer Emphasis on writing skills of the one who compiles the questionnaire

The direct interaction of the interview is a source of both its advantages and its disadvantages. One advantage is that it allows for greater depth than with other methods of data collection. On the other hand, it is prone to subjectivity and bias on the part of the interviewer. The fact that many individuals can simultaneously use the questionnaire is a great advantage but this also means that it cannot be personalised and collect detailed information from the particular respondent.


In Unit 1, we spoke about the validity of a measuring instrument.  One of the problems with measuring instruments (such as an interview) is its validity.  A measuring instrument is valid if it tests what it is supposed to test.  In other words, does the test to determine intelligence, really test intelligence or does it test personality, interest or something else?  If it really tests intelligence (and not something else), then the test is valid.

The interview is not always a valid instrument because of bias. Sources of bias are the characteristics of the interviewer, the characteristics of the respondent, and the substantive content of the questions.  In other words, the attitudes and opinions of the interviewer; a tendency of the interviewer to see the respondent in his/her own image; a tendency for the interviewer to seek answers that support his/her preconceived notions; misperceptions on the part of the interviewer of what the respondent is saying; and misunderstandings on the part of the respondent of what is being asked.  Studies have also shown that the following can be sources of bias: race, religion, social class and age.

Module 2, Unit 3, Activity 6

  1. Refer to your own information from your MiCareer that you gathered to date. Use information from questionnaires in Unit 2 and Interviews in unit 3 to learn and use the techniques together.  Compare the purpose of Questionnaires and Interviews and how they support each other.
  2. Use Dictionary and Wikipedia or a Google search to explore and discover matching areas. Remember that you are exploring and discovering. The information will inspire you to think about the manner in which you formulate questions that you ask you clients. It should also create an awareness of the level at which you function.
  3. Write down two scenarios in which you believe questionnaires (Click on Quantitative to read and understand quantitative) and interview (Click on Qualitative to read and understand qualitative) methods will function best.
  4. Bias in questionnaires: Do you believe that questionnaires are repeatable and tend to be objective? Write a paragraph on your opinion and briefly motivate your answer.
  5. Bias in interviews: Let us say, as a child Mrs Baloyi was unhappy at school. She never liked her teachers and always felt that they were unkind to her and preferred working with other children.  Do you think this could make Mrs Baloyi negatively biased towards people considering the teaching profession?  Write down you answer, Yes or No. Then write a short paragraph explaining your choice.
  6. How do questionnaires and the interviews complement each other? In other words, how can they be used together to reach a common goal?
  7. Record your experiences by completing the above activities in your MiCareer Book as part of your assignments.


Any interviewer brings his or her bias to the interview and must work hard not to project that past onto the client’s choices. Any interviewer could be biased when discussing the teaching profession with Mary.  Interviewers need to be aware of their own subjective feelings and keep these in check when interviewing their clients.

How can bias be reduced? Consider these suggestions.

  • Careful formulation of questions so that the meaning is clear;
  • Thorough training of interviewers so that they are more aware of the possible problems;
  • An interviewer who is as similar as possible to the respondents, for example, with regard to race or gender;
  • Creating an atmosphere of friendliness and trust so that respondents are honest about their feelings, values and opinions;
  • Look up bias in interviews on the WWW for further infomation; and
  • Get observers during your interviews to give feedback and grow your competencies.


In this unit, we explored the use of the interview when enabling you to help your future clients gain self-knowledge and thus enable them to choose an industry or work of their choice while build their career.  This relates to the purpose of interviews.  We have also compared questionnaires and interviews, linked observation and interviews and discussed different kinds of interviews. We also examined the problems with interviews and some possible solutions for these problems. Remember to be aware of of these problems and always to seek solutions of your own. Finally, we reviewed the procedure for conducting an interview.  In the next unit, the techniques of developing groups and connecting to people with resources are discussed.